The Gowerment Went to Private Education in Egypt

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Institut für Ethnologie und Afrikastudien
Department of Anthropology and African Studies

Arbeitspapiere / Working Papers Nr. 88

Sarah Hartmann

The Informal Market of Education in Egypt. Private Tutoring and Its Implications

2008

The Working Papers are edited by Institut für Ethnologie und Afrikastudien, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Forum 6, D-55099 Mainz, Germany. Tel. +49-6131-3923720; Email: ifeas@uni-mainz.de; http://www.ifeas.uni-mainz.de http://www.ifeas.uni-mainz.de/workingpapers/Arbeitspapiere.html Geschäftsführende Herausgeberin/ Managing Editor: Eva Spies (espies@uni-mainz.de)

Biographical Note Sarah Hartmann studied Social Anthropology and Media and Communication Studies at the Free University of Berlin and the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. She gained her M.A. degree from the Free University of Berlin in 2007.

Note on Transliteration
I have used a simplified transliteration of Arabic terms in this text, in order to make it more readable and to represent the Egyptian spoken dialect as it sounds rather than as it might be written in Arabic. I have retained double consonants, but, in most cases, made no distinction between long and short vowels. I do not differentiate between the different “s”, “d” and “t” sounds, nor between the different “h” sounds that exist in Arabic. An open single quotation mark (‘) represents the consonant “‘ayn”, an apostrophe (’) the letters “hamza”, “qaf” (which is not pronounced in Egyptian dialect) or a glottal stop. I have not assimilated the “l” of the definite article. Names and place names are represented in their most common form of spelling.

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Contents

Note on Transliteration ............................................................................................. 2 Contents ...................................................................................................................... 3 1 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction................................................................................................. 6 Private tutoring – a worldwide phenomenon ........................................... 8 Definition: private tutoring ........................................................................... 8 Literature on private tutoring ........................................................................ 9 Theoretical framework ............................................................................. 12 Concepts of the market ............................................................................... 12 Commodification: expansion of the market principle................................. 13 Education – a public good? Privatization, informalization and the role of the state ............................................................................................................. 14 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 Education and the state ...................................................................... 14 Privatization and informalization....................................................... 17 Is education a public good?................................................................ 18

Background: Education in Egypt ............................................................ 19 Historical development of the education system ........................................ 19 The Egyptian education system today......................................................... 22 The significance of magmu‘ and shihada – popular perceptions of education in Egypt ....................................................................................................... 24 4.4 The status and role of teachers .................................................................... 28 Research setting......................................................................................... 31 5.1 Doing research in Umm al-Dunya – The challenges of urban anthropology in...
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