Begun in 1993, the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program is an ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and national culture. Using the data from 825 organizations in 62 countries, the GLOBE team identified nine dimensions on which national cultures differ. ASSERTIVENESS:
The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough, confrontational, assertive, and competitive versus modest and tender. This is essentially equivalent to Hofstede’s achievement dimension. FUTURE ORIENTATION:
The extent to which a society encourages and rewards future oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification. This is essentially equivalent to Hofstedeâ€™s long-term / short-term orientation. GENDER DIFFERENTIATION:
The extent to which a society maximum gender role differences. UNCERTAINLY AVOIDANCE:
As identified by Hofstede, the GLOBE team defined this term as a society’s reliance on social norms and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events. POWER DISTANCE:
The GLOBE team defined this as the degree to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared.
Again, this term was defined as the degree to which individuals are encouraged by societal institutions to be integrated into groups within organizations and society. IN-GROUP COLLECTIVISM:
In contrast to focusing on societal institutions, this dimension encompasses the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups, such as their family and circle of close friends, and the organizations in which they are employed. PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION:
This refers to the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence. HUMANE ORIENTATION:
This is defined as the degree to which a society encourages and rewards...