The Forms of the Gerund
| being written
| having written
| having been written
The nominal characteristics
| The verbal characteristics
| 1*.can perform the function of subject, object and predicative.
[e.g. They say smoking leads to meditation. (Collins) (SUBJECT) I like making people happy. (Shaw) (OBJECT) The duty of all progressive mankind is fighting for peace.(PREDICATIVE)]
| 1. *of transitive verbs can take a direct object.[e.g. I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. (Swift)]
| 2.*can be preceded by a preposition. [e.g. I am very, very tired of rowing. (Hemingway)]
| 2.* can be modified by an adverb. [e.g. She burst out crying bitterly. (Hardy)]
| 3.*can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun. [e.g. Is there any objection to my seeing her? (Galsworthy) Кто-нибудь возражает против того, чтобы я повидался с ней?]
| 3.* has tense distinctions; * of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions.
*developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character.
| * is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with Participle I.
In the Russian Language
(a)by a noun [Dancing had not begun yet... (Mansfield) Танцы еще не начались.]
| (b)by an infinitive [It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. (Galsworthy)-Бесполезно прятать голову под крыло.]
| (c)by деепричастие[And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. (Da Maurier)- И, не дожидаясь ее ответа, он повернулся и вышел.]
| (d)by a subordinate clause [Не regretted now having come. (Galsworthy)- Теперь он сожалел, что пришел.]
The tense distinctions of the gerund
1. The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive
| 2. The Perfect Gerund
| an Indefinite Gerund (a prior action)...
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