The Gap Model in Service

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Quality of the service is the degree of conformance of all the relevant features and characteristics of service to all the aspects of the consumers’ needs limited by the price and delivery s/he will accept. Quality can be viewed from two perspectives:



Internal quality based on conformance to specifications External quality based on customer-perceived quality

Gain competitive advantage, maintain loyalty Increase value (may permit higher margins) Improve profits

Expected Service

CUSTOMER
Customer Gap

Perceived Service
Service Delivery External Communications to Customers

COMPANY
Gap 3 Gap 1

Gap 4

Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap 2
Company Perceptions of Consumer Expectations

Customer Expectations

Gap 1

•Inadequate marketing research orientation •Lack of upward communication •Insufficient relationship focus •Inadequate service recovery Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations

Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap 2

• Poor service design • Absence of customer-driven standards • Inappropriate physical evidence and services gap Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations

Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap 3

•Deficiencies in human resource policies •Customers who do not fulfill roles •Problems with service intermediaries • Failure to match supply and demand Service Delivery

Service Delivery

Gap 4

•Lack of integrated services marketing communications. •Ineffective management of customer expectations. •Overpromising. •Inadequate horizontal communications. External Communications to Customers

Expected Service

CUSTOMER
Customer Gap

COMPANY

Perceived Service
Service Delivery External Communications to Customers

Gap 1

Gap 4

Gap 3
Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap 2
Company Perceptions of Consumer Expectations

The central focus of the gaps model is the customer gap, the difference between customer expectations and perceptions.  Expectations are the reference points customers have coming in to a service experience.  Perceptions reflect the service as actually received. 

Most goods

Most services

Easy to evaluate

Difficult to evaluate

High in search properties

High in experience properties

High in credence properties

Desired Service

ZONE OF TOLERANCE

Adequate Service

Desired Service Level Of Expectation
ZONE OF TOLERANCE Desired Service

Adequate Service

ZONE OF TOLERANCE

Adequate Service

Reliability

Tangibles

Lasting Service Intensifiers Desired Service

Personal Needs ZONE OF TOLERANCE

Adequate Service

Lasting Service Intensifiers

Desired Service

Personal Needs

Temporary Service Intensifiers

ZONE OF TOLERANCE

Perceived Service Alternatives Adequate Service Self Perceived Service Role

Predicted Service

Situational Factors

Lasting Service Intensifiers

Explicit Service Promises
Desired Service

Implicit Service Promises
Word – Of – Mouth

Personal Needs

Temporary Service Intensifiers

ZONE OF TOLERANCE Past Experience

Perceived Service Alternatives Adequate Service Self Perceived Service Role

Predicted Service

Situational Factors

Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation.  It is seen as a key performance indicator within business. 

"Customer loyalty is when an organization receives the ultimate reward for the way it interacts with its customers. “  Although customer loyalty is often achieved through offers, discount coupons, rebates and other kinds of rewards, long-term customer loyalty can only be created by making your customers feel that they are your number one priority. 



Customer satisfaction measures how well a customer’s expectations are met. Customer loyalty measures how likely customers are to return and their...
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