The function of EST in the modern society
English for Science and Technology is designed for graduates an students of the Faculty of Sciences and Technology who are interested to enrich the scientific and technical English language and for people working or training to work as engineers and technicians. The material covers a wide range of technical areas, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. In learning a language, the aim is to be able to utilize the language in day-to-day tasks as also to meet the career demands. The needs of the students are crucial in teaching and one should ensure that learning does take place and the learners do achieve their long-term goals which include learners' ability to communicate in the target language outside of classrooms and realization of various professional/career opportunities. The language in EST is also more specialized. This is not surprising given the fact that scientific inquiry is a very specific process which relates to control, manipulation and observation of situations and involves research assumptions, hypothesis formation, and theory construction. With the worldwide dissemination of science and technique, English for science and technology has been developed into an important language in the scope of science and technology. Since the 1970s’, it had aroused extensive attention and led to much research among different nations. English for science and technology plays an important role in scientific and technical communication all over the world. The English for Science and Technology (EST) emerged in the 1950s. It was the outcome of the swift development of science and technology after World WarⅡ. Since the 1970s, the EST has aroused worldwide attention and led to much research among different nations. With more and more science papers published in English, the EST, a major variety of English, which is different from the daily English and literary English, has emerged as the times require with its own typical characteristics. And now it has become a significant language variety. The EST generally refers to both written language and spoken language about science and technology. It includes scientific books, papers, reports, experimental records and schemes; various scientific intelligence and scripts; the practical scientific handbooks (operative means including instruments, machines and tools); scientific films, videos and sound materials with the caption, etc. An important and perhaps surprising feature of English for Science and Technology is that its normal style is common to both written and spoken communication. The EST has its own characteristics such as high-level specialization, new concepts, complicated structure, simple and clear language, more declarative sentences, extensive use of the passive voice, many complicated and long sentences, etc. Compared with other literary forms, it has higher-level scientific nature, organization, accuracy and closeness. Following are three examples. First, Computer science (or computing science) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation, and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems. It is frequently described as the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information. According to Peter J. Denning, the fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be (efficiently) automated?" Computer science has many sub-fields; some, such as computer graphics, emphasize the computation of specific results, while others, such as computational complexity theory, study the properties of computational problems. Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations. For example, programming language theory studies approaches to describing computations, while computer programming applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems, and human-computer...
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