Which political philosophy was overthrown and converted into an -ism during the French Revolution. * Conservatism: the conservatives wanted to uphold the traditional ways of government
Liberalism was more closely connected to the spirit and outlook of the enlightenment than to any of the other isms of the early 19th century. Liberalism was reformist and political rather than revolutionary in character.
In order to be a nation state, you need to have the following * A group of people that living in same geographical area, same culture, history, language, religion, and are united under a single government.
Nationalism as loyalty to one’s nation, did not originate in the early 19th century. Men and women have been fighting for, and living and dying for, their respective countries for hundreds of years.
Romanticism had to build up people nationalism. It emphasized imagination, emotion and passion. Romanticism was primarily a theory of literature and art. “As a theory of art it raised basic questions on the nature of significant truth, on the importance of various human faculties, on the relation of thought and feeling, on the meaning of the past and of the time itself.
- Appealed to emotion rather than to reason (truth and virtue can be found just as surely by the heart as by the head)
The first treaty of Paris
- Vacan retain their borders as 1792
- They were allowed to retain all the art treasures that they eluted from conquered countries. These previsions were confirmed in the Congress of Vienna
In 1815 only three nation states existed
* Great Britain
East was composed of three empires
* Russian Empire
* Ottoman Empire
* Austrian-Hungarian Empire
Austrian-Hungarian Empire – composed of different nationalities and Austria was the most dominant nationality group and the Hungary (Magyars) was the second.
November 1814 the Congress of Vienna
* Austria was represented in the Congress of Vienna by two people : Emperor Francis I and chief minister Prince Von Metternich
* England – Lord Castlereagh
* Russia – Alexander I
* Prussia – Frederick William III
4 great powers that called the Congress of Vienna to confirm their victory over the fifth great power France. Great Power = a country that could shape international events
Three main problems
1. How to ensure against any further aggression from France 2. How to divide among the Great Powers certain disputed territories in a way acceptable to all. 3. How to maintain the effective alliance of the four Great Powers
Matternich dominated the Congress
Metternich thought of himself as a European, no as a citizen of any single country
Disliked and distrusted democratic ideals of French Revolution. Metternich like most European aristocrats believed in the value of keeping things as they were.
Matternich had three goals at the Congress of Vienna
1. Strenthen the countries that surrounded France to prevent future French aggression 2. Restore the balance of power so that no country was a threat to others 3. Restore royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon’s conquests. (principle of legitimacy)
A- The Encirclement of France
Prevention of Aggression by France – Countries around France were made stronger.
* Austria Netherlands (Belgium) and Holland (Dutch Republic) were united in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In this way it was hoped to create a much stronger power on the northeastern frontier of France. It was this direction that the revolutionary armies of 1792 had taken so successfully. A Prussian garrison was placed in Luxemburg. (See Map text 151) * A group of 39 German states were joined into a newly created German Confederation, dominated by Austria. Step towards German Unification. *...