1. THE FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR By: Stephen Robbins & Timothy Judge Prepared by: GREGAR DONAVEN E. VALDEHUEZA, MBA Lourdes College Instructor 2. Learning Objectives
* Differentiate between formal and informal groups.
* Compare two models of group development.
* Explain how role requirements change in different situations. * Describe how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior. * Explain what determines status.
* Define social loafing and its effect on group performance. * Identify the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups. * List the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making. * Contrast the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal, and electronic meeting groups. 3. Defining and Classifying Groups
* Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. 4.
* Formal Groups
* A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. * Command Group
* A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. * Task Group
* Those working together to completes a job task. 5.
* Informal Groups
* A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contract. * Interest Group
* Those working together to complete a job task. * Friendship Group
* Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. 6. Why do people join groups?
* Security. By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of “standing alone”. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. * Status. Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. * Self-esteem. Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. * Affiliation. Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation. * Power. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers. * Goal Achievement. There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task – there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job. In such instances, management will reply on the use of a formal group. 7. Stages of Group Development
* The Five-Stage Group-Development Model
* The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. 8.
* Stage I: Forming
* The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. * Stage II: Storming
* The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. * Stage III: Norming
* The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. 9.
* Stage IV: Performing
* The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. * Stage V: Adjourning
* The fifth stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task...