The Form of Structural Equation Models
Structural equation modeling incorporates several different approaches or frameworks to representing these models. In one well-known framework (popularized by Karl Jöreskog, University of Uppsala), the general structural equation model can be represented by three matrix equations:

However, in applied work, structural equation models are most often represented graphically. Here is a graphical example of a structural equation model:

For more information, click on an element of this diagram, or choose from this list: Latent Constructs | Structural Model | Structural Error | Manifest Variables | Measurement Model | Measurement Error | This diagram uses the dominant symbolic language in the SEM world. However, there are alternate forms, including the " RAM," reticular action model.

Latent Constructs
In structural equation modeling, the key variables of interest are usually "latent constructs"--abstract psychological concepts such as "intelligence" or "attitude." We can observe the behavior of latent variables only indirectly, and imperfectly, through their effects on manifest variables. A structural equation model may include two types of latent constructs--exogenous and endogenous. In the most traditional system, exogenous constructs are indicated by the Greek character "ksi" (at left) and endogenous constructs are indicated by the Greek character "eta" (at right). These two types of constructs are distinguished on the basis of whether or not they are dependent variables in any equation in the system of equations represented by the model. Exogenous constructs are independent variables in all equations in which they appear, while endogenous constructs are dependent variables in at least one equation--although they may be independent variables in other equations in the system. In graphical terms, each endogenous construct is the target of at least one one-headed arrow, while exogenous constructs are only targeted by...

...Introduction to StructuralEquation Modeling (Path Analysis)
SGIM Precourse PA08 May 2005 Jeffrey L. Jackson, MD MPH Kent Dezee, MD MPH Kevin Douglas, MD William Shimeall, MD MPH Traditional multivariate modeling (linear regression, ANOVA, Poisson regression, logistic regression, proportional hazard modeling) is useful for examining direct relationships between independent and dependent variables. All share a common format:
Dependent Variable = Independent variable1 + Independent Variable2 + Independent Variable3
The net result of such modeling is to examine relationships in the following format Independent Variable1 Independent Variable2 Independent Variable3 Dependent Variable
However, real life may not be so parsimonious, relationships between various variables may be much more complex, more “web-like,” for example: Independent Variable6 Independent Variable1 Independent Variable2 Independent Variable3 Dependent Variable
Independent Variable4
Independent Variable5
In this example, Variables 1-3 and 6 have direct effects on the dependent variable, while variables 4 and 5 have indirect effects, mediated by effects on Variables 1, 2 and 3. Variable 6 1
has both direct and indirect effects on the dependent variable. This "web" of relationships could not be easily modeled with standard regression techniques. On the other hand, structuralequation modeling (SEM) readily allows one to explore such...

...StructuralEquation Modeling
* A Conceptual Overview
* The Basic Idea Behind Structural Modeling
* StructuralEquation Modeling and the Path Diagram
A Conceptual Overview
StructuralEquation Modeling is a very general, very powerful multivariate analysis technique that includes specialized versions of a number of other analysis methods as special cases. We will assume that you are familiar with the basic logic of statistical reasoning as described in Elementary Concepts. Moreover, we will also assume that you are familiar with the concepts of variance, covariance, and correlation; if not, we advise that you read the Basic Statistics section at this point. Although it is not absolutely necessary, it is highly desirable that you have some background in factor analysis before attempting to use structural modeling.
Major applications of structuralequation modeling include:
1. causal modeling, or path analysis, which hypothesizes causal relationships among variables and tests the causal models with a linear equation system. Causal models can involve either manifest variables, latent variables, or both;
2. confirmatory factor analysis, an extension of factor analysis in which specific hypotheses about the structure of the factor loadings and intercorrelations are tested;
3. second...

...456–469
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Expert Systems with Applications
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa
A structuralequationmodel for analyzing the impact of ERP on SCM
Yi-fen Su a,c, Chyan Yang a,b,*
a b c
Institute of Information Management, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University, 118 Zhong Xiao West Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan, ROC Department of Information Management, Minghsin University of Science and Technology, 1 Hsin Hsing Road, Hsinfong, Hsinchu 304, Taiwan, ROC
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and supply chain management (SCM) represent important information technology investment options for operation or IT managers, and have been acclaimed in the practitioner and academic literature for their potential to improve business performance. The purpose of this article is to provide further insights into the adoption of ERP systems and the impacts on ﬁrm competence in SCM. We propose a model featuring ERP beneﬁts to ﬁrm competences in supply chain management. We also hypothesize that three constructs of ERP beneﬁts positively impact ﬁrm competences in SCM. To clarify the relationships among these constructs, structuralequationmodel (SEM) is conducted to examine the model ﬁt and...

...A structuralmodel of
fashion-oriented impulse
buying behavior
Eun Joo Park
Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, and
Eun Young Kim and Judith Cardona Forney
School of Merchandising and Hospitality Management,
University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA
Abstract
Purpose This study aims to examine the causal relationships among fashion involvement, positive
emotion, hedonic consumption tendency, and fashion-oriented impulse buying in the context of
shopping.
Design/methodology/approach A self-administered questionnaire developed from the literature
was administered to 217 college students during a scheduled class. They were enrolled at one
metropolitan university in a southwestern state in the USA. A structuralequationmodel using a
correlation matrix with maximum likelihood was estimated by LISREL 8.53.
Findings Fashion involvement and positive emotion had positive effects on consumers’
fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior with fashion involvement having the greatest effect.
Hedonic consumption tendency was an important mediator in determining fashion-oriented impulse
buying.
Research limitations/implications This study was limited to college students at one
metropolitan university in a southwestern state in the USA and to general fashion products.
Practical implications Retailers may encourage consumers’ positive emotion through strategies
such as store design, product...

...Sigmund Freud’s structuralmodel of the psyche can be classified as three main parts that interrelate but not supersede each other. The components are named the id, ego, and superego. Each component has a distinct role in that leads to the development of a child’s structure of personality. The id is the uninhibited, natural, chaotic part of the personality. The ego is develops immediately after birth and one of its main responsibilities is to provide a balance between the desires of the id and the realities of the outside world. The superego represents the rights and wrongs that have been developed to the child by their parents, educators and other significant individuals. By my estimation about 80% of our psyche is unconscious. In terms of the structure of personality, sublimation can be defined as the id having an unwanted impulse and the ego balancing the desires of the id into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors.
There are types of parents, authoritarian, permissive, authoritative and uninvolved. Authoritarian parents are rigid and punitive. They are very strict and expect their children to be obedient. Permissive parents are very relaxed and lack direction. They are very warm but don’t require much from their children. Authoritative parents set limits and goals. They try to reason and explain things to their children. Uninvolved parents show little interest in their children. Usually these parents are emotionally detached...

...Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structuralmodel of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described. According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual (instinctive, accustomed, inherent, involuntary, spontaneous) trends; the ego is the organised, realistic part; and the super-ego plays the critical and moralising role.
Even though the model is "structural" and makes reference to an "apparatus", the id, ego, and super-ego are functions of the mind rather than parts of the brain and do not necessarily correspond one-to-one with actual somatic (physical, corporeal) structures of the kind dealt with by neuroscience.
The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud's thought: the structuralmodel was first discussed in his 1920 essay "Beyond the Pleasure Principle" and was formalised and elaborated upon three years later in his "The Ego and the Id". Freud's proposal was influenced by the ambiguity of the term "unconscious" and its many conflicting uses.
The id comprises the unorganised part of the personality structure that contains the basic drives. The id acts according to the "pleasure principle", seeking to avoid pain or unpleasure aroused by increases in instinctual...

...1. Which equation below represents the quadratic formula?
*a. -b±b2-4ac2a = x
b. a2+b2=c2
c. fx=a0+n=1∞ancosnπxL+bnsinnπxL
2. Which of the following represents a set of parallel lines?
a. Option one
b. Option two
*c. Option three
3. What is the definition of an obtuse angle?
*a. an angle greater than 90°
b. an angle equal to 90°
c. an angle less than 90°
4. Which formula below represents the area of a circle?
a. A=2πr
*b. A=πr2
c. A=π2r
d. A= √π
5.
What geometric term is represented by the image below?
a. a corner
*b. a cross-section
c. the circumference
d. the perimeter
11. Using the data in the table below, calculate the mean, or average, number of points scored by Player B.
| Game 1 | Game 2 | Game 3 | Game 4 | Game 5 |
Player A | 13 | 12 | 9 | 11 | 13 |
Player B | 12 | 11 | 15 | 20 | 12 |
*a. 14
b. 11.5
c. 13
d. 13.67
6. This instrument is commonly used by surveyors. It measures horizontal and vertical angles to determine the location of a point from other known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point directly. What is it called?
a. triangulator
b. binocular
c. tripod
*d. theodolite
7. What is the name of the missing shape in the flowchart below?
a. Acute
b. Obtuse
*c. Isosceles
d. Right
8. What category includes all of the items on the list below?
* Square
* Rectangle
*...

...SCHEDULE G
(Form 1120)
(Rev. December 2011)
Department of the Treasury
Internal Revenue Service
Information on Certain Persons Owning the
Corporation’s Voting Stock
to Form 1120.
▶ See instructions on page 2.
Employer identification number (EIN)
Name
Part I
Certain Entities Owning the Corporation’s Voting Stock. (Form 1120, Schedule K, Question 4a). Complete
columns (i) through (v) below for any foreign or domestic corporation, partnership (including any entity treated
as a partnership), trust, or tax-exempt organization that owns directly 20% or more, or owns, directly or
indirectly, 50% or more of the total voting power of all classes of the corporation’s stock entitled to vote (see
instructions).
(i) Name of Entity
Part II
OMB No. 1545-0123
▶ Attach
(ii) Employer Identification
Number (if any)
(iii) Type of Entity
(iv) Country of Organization
(v) Percentage Owned in Voting Stock
Certain Individuals and Estates Owning the Corporation’s Voting Stock. (Form 1120, Schedule K,
Question 4b). Complete columns (i) through (iv) below for any individual or estate that owns directly 20% or
more, or owns, directly or indirectly, 50% or more of the total voting power of all classes of the corporation’s
stock entitled to vote (see instructions).
(i) Name of Individual or Estate
For Paperwork Reduction Act Notice,
see the Instructions for Form 1120.
(ii)...

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