The Form of Structural Equation Models
Structural equation modeling incorporates several different approaches or frameworks to representing these models. In one well-known framework (popularized by Karl Jöreskog, University of Uppsala), the general structural equation model can be represented by three matrix equations:

However, in applied work, structural equation models are most often represented graphically. Here is a graphical example of a structural equation model:

For more information, click on an element of this diagram, or choose from this list: Latent Constructs | Structural Model | Structural Error | Manifest Variables | Measurement Model | Measurement Error | This diagram uses the dominant symbolic language in the SEM world. However, there are alternate forms, including the " RAM," reticular action model.

Latent Constructs
In structural equation modeling, the key variables of interest are usually "latent constructs"--abstract psychological concepts such as "intelligence" or "attitude." We can observe the behavior of latent variables only indirectly, and imperfectly, through their effects on manifest variables. A structural equation model may include two types of latent constructs--exogenous and endogenous. In the most traditional system, exogenous constructs are indicated by the Greek character "ksi" (at left) and endogenous constructs are indicated by the Greek character "eta" (at right). These two types of constructs are distinguished on the basis of whether or not they are dependent variables in any equation in the system of equations represented by the model. Exogenous constructs are independent variables in all equations in which they appear, while endogenous constructs are dependent variables in at least one equation--although they may be independent variables in other equations in the system. In graphical terms, each endogenous construct is the target of at least one one-headed arrow, while exogenous constructs are only targeted by...

...Introduction to StructuralEquation Modeling (Path Analysis)
SGIM Precourse PA08 May 2005 Jeffrey L. Jackson, MD MPH Kent Dezee, MD MPH Kevin Douglas, MD William Shimeall, MD MPH Traditional multivariate modeling (linear regression, ANOVA, Poisson regression, logistic regression, proportional hazard modeling) is useful for examining direct relationships between independent and dependent variables. All share a common format:
Dependent Variable = Independent...

...StructuralEquation Modeling
* A Conceptual Overview
* The Basic Idea Behind Structural Modeling
* StructuralEquation Modeling and the Path Diagram
A Conceptual Overview
StructuralEquation Modeling is a very general, very powerful multivariate analysis technique that includes specialized versions of a number of other analysis methods as special cases. We will assume that you are...

...Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 456–469
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Expert Systems with Applications
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa
A structuralequationmodel for analyzing the impact of ERP on SCM
Yi-fen Su a,c, Chyan Yang a,b,*
a b c
Institute of Information Management, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung...

...A structuralmodel of
fashion-oriented impulse
buying behavior
Eun Joo Park
Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, and
Eun Young Kim and Judith Cardona Forney
School of Merchandising and Hospitality Management,
University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA
Abstract
Purpose This study aims to examine the causal relationships among fashion involvement, positive
emotion, hedonic consumption tendency, and fashion-oriented impulse buying in the context of...

...Sigmund Freud’s structuralmodel of the psyche can be classified as three main parts that interrelate but not supersede each other. The components are named the id, ego, and superego. Each component has a distinct role in that leads to the development of a child’s structure of personality. The id is the uninhibited, natural, chaotic part of the personality. The ego is develops immediately after birth and one of its main responsibilities is to provide a balance...

...apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structuralmodel of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described. According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual (instinctive, accustomed, inherent, involuntary, spontaneous) trends; the ego is the organised, realistic part; and the super-ego plays the critical and moralising role.
Even though the...

...1. Which equation below represents the quadratic formula?
*a. -b±b2-4ac2a = x
b. a2+b2=c2
c. fx=a0+n=1∞ancosnπxL+bnsinnπxL
2. Which of the following represents a set of parallel lines?
a. Option one
b. Option two
*c. Option three
3. What is the definition of an obtuse angle?
*a. an angle greater than 90°
b. an angle equal to 90°
c. an angle less than 90°
4. Which formula below represents the area of a circle?
a. A=2πr
*b....

...SCHEDULE G
(Form 1120)
(Rev. December 2011)
Department of the Treasury
Internal Revenue Service
Information on Certain Persons Owning the
Corporation’s Voting Stock
to Form 1120.
▶ See instructions on page 2.
Employer identification number (EIN)
Name
Part I
Certain Entities Owning the Corporation’s Voting Stock. (Form 1120, Schedule K, Question 4a). Complete
columns (i) through (v) below for any foreign or domestic corporation,...

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