What philosophy should guide a company marketing and selling efforts? What relative weights should be given to the interests of the organization, the customers, and society? These interest often clash, however, an organization’s marketing and selling activities should be carried out under a well-thought-out philosophy of efficiency, effectiveness, and socially responsibility.
Five orientations (philosophical concepts to the marketplace have guided and continue to guide organizational activities:
1.The Production Concept
2.The Product Concept
3.The Selling Concept
4.The Marketing Concept
5.The Societal Marketing Concept
The Five Concepts Described
The Production Concept. This concept is the oldest of the concepts in business. It holds that consumers will prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive. Managers focusing on this concept concentrate on achieving high production efficiency, low costs, and mass distribution. They assume that consumers are primarily interested in product availability and low prices. This orientation makes sense in developing countries, where consumers are more interested in obtaining the product than in its features.
The Product Concept. This orientation holds that consumers will favor those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features. Managers focusing on this concept concentrate on making superior products and improving them over time. They assume that buyers admire well-made products and can appraise quality and performance. However, these managers are sometimes caught up in a love affair with their product and do not realize what the market needs. Management might commit the “better-mousetrap” fallacy, believing that a better mousetrap will lead people to beat a path to its door.
The Selling Concept. This is another common business orientation. It holds that...