THE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE RESTRICTION IN FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND INFORMATION IN MALAYSIA TOWARDS IUKL'S LOCAL STUDENTS
"Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 19, 1948).
Freedom of speech and information is the one of the rights to every people in the civilized nation. Freedom of speech and information can be describe as the freedom of each of the citizen to voice out their opinion in the appropriate way and gain the access to the useful information without any filtration and restriction from any parties.
In any civilized nation, most of their citizens are aware about this right and they will keep on defending this right from any suppression. In this research we will see that the level of exposure and knowledge of this right and their thoughts about it. The research will conclude the level of importance of this right to the students especially to the IUKL students.
The research will examine major factors that contribute to the restriction of the freedom of speech and information among the local students of IUKL which are represent the students community and how all of these restrictions give the impact to their right for freedom of speech and information.
1.2 Background of the Problem
The problem that will be examine in this research paper is the factors that contribute to the restriction to the right in freedom of speech and information, and its effect on the information exposure in IUKL local students specifically the local students of School of Communication and Language Studies.
United States Supreme Court 1969 stated that: The issue of school speech as it relates to the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution is one that has been of much debate and the subject of much litigation since the mid-20th century.
The First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech applies to students in the public schools: In the landmark decision. (Wikipedia 2012)
"Given such unequal access, Indian scientists inevitably struggle to perform world class science. The fact is that equitable access to current scientific information is essential if India is to take its rightful place in the world." (Poynder, 2006,).
Freedom of speech and information among the students is the right that every student should understand and defend. The students can voice out their opinion and get access to the important information without any filtration in the appropriate manner and place.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
There are 3 factors that influenced the restriction to the freedom of speech and information among the local students especially IUKL students. The factors can be divided into political, sociological and legal.
The factors are:
The legal ownership of the media by a government parties and people has made the information in the media been controlled.
Human Rights Education Associates, 2007 stated that: Access to information held by public authorities is another aspect of the freedom of information debate. International/regional human rights mechanisms have asserted the public's right to know and urged governments' to adopt legislation along the following lines.
The legislation should be guided by the principle of maximum disclosure; public bodies should be under an obligation to publish key information; public bodies should actively promote open government; exceptions should be clearly and narrowly drawn and subject to strict ‘harm' and ‘public interest' tests; individuals should have the right to appeal against a refusal to disclose information to an independent administrative body, which operates in a fair, timely and low-cost...