Through a young person’s development, from birth to 19 they are expected to follow a development pattern including physical, social, environmental, behavioural, intellectual and communicational. The expected pattern is seen as the average time period it would take to accomplish these skills.
The expected pattern starts at 0-3 years where a child is expected to develop the most. They have little control over their bodies at 0-1 years and are dependent on their natural instincts e.g. sucking, grasping but when the child has more control over their body they will start to crawl and eventually progress to walking. By the age of 3 as well as walking the child will have learnt to sound words, whilst speaking at a very basic level e.g. numbers, colours, mummy, daddy, in total they are expected to have retained at least 200 words. This means the child is capable of holding a basic conversation with other children and those around them; this is the start of their confidence building and socialising skills expanding.
At the age of 3 children are expected to speak at a very basic level and have grasped the basic skills such as gripping, holding objects. The child should be able to run and walk with confidence and should be able to understand the emotional attachment through interaction and communication with others.
3-7 years--- At this stage, children are able to carry out more co-ordinate movements and growing in confidence as a result. They have more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They are also more confident in activities, such as running, hopping, kicking a ball and using larger equipment.
7-14 years--- Children continue to grow, develop and refine many of their skills through these years. They may start to have hobbies and interests, such as sport or dance, which means that they are more practiced in some areas. They may also be able to make very controlled fine movements, such as those required for playing an instrument, sewing or drawing. Girls in particular, start to show some early signs of puberty from the age of 10 or 11. In boys puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of rapid physical growth.
14-19 years ---At this stage, children have occasional poor spatial awareness as a result of the body shape changing especially in boys.
Intellectual development (Cognitive).
3-7 years--- This period of development in which children start to become skilled with aspects of number and writing, as well as continuing to learn about their world. They still look for adult’s approval and are starting to learn to read.
7-14 years--- Children start to develop ideas about activities or subjects they enjoy. They are still influenced by adults and are becoming fluent in reading and writing skills. They are developing their own thoughts and preferences and are able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way.
Social, emotional and behavioural development
3-7 years--- Children are still developing their identities and are starting to play with their peers and socializing, using imaginative play. This helps them to develop their concept of different roles in their lives. It is important that they understand the importance of boundaries and why they are necessary. They also respond well to being given responsibilities, for example, as class helper, and need adult approval.
7-14 years--- Children’s friendships become more settled and they have groups of friends. They need to have the chance to solve problems and carry out activities that requires more independence. They continue to need praise and encouragement and are increasingly aware of what others think of them.
14-19 years ---At this stage, most children show high level of skills like computers the same as adults.