Strayer University – Lithonia Campus
The Ethics of Human Cloning
Hensley,S (2005,January 14) On the UN’s Failure to Pass an Anti-Cloning Treaty. Retrieved from http://cbhd.org/content/uns-failure-pass-anti-cloning-treaty Begley,S (2009,Feb9) Human Clones: One Step Closer
Retrieved from: http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/blogs/lab-notes/2009/02/03/human-clones-one-step-closer.html Gilgoff, D (2009,Feb 9) Did Obama Open the Door to Human Cloning with his Stem Cell Order? Retrieved from: http://www.usnews.com/news/religion/articles/2009/03/24/did-obama-open-the-door-to-human-cloning-with-his-stem-cell-order Jones, N.(28 ,Novemeber 2001) Human Cloning – Embroyo Style : Delveriance Retreived from: http://cbhd.org/content/human-cloning-embryo-style-deliverance-or-captivity
Mickie ,R. (2012, January22) Cloning Scientist create human brain cells Retreived from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/jan/29/brain-cloning-breakthrough-mental-illness Epstein ,A (2011, Novemeber 11) Cloning is a Pro- Life Technology Retreived from: http://capitalismmagazine.com/2003/11/cloning-is-a-pro-life-technology/
Cloning before the 1990s was a science not well known among the public because major successes in this field involved non-mammalian animals; although these successes were far from the public interest of human cloning, they are still crucial to the development of mammalian cloning (Royal , 2009). The first successful cloning was that of a sea urchin by Hans Adolf Edward Dreisch in 1885. The method of cloning used by Dreisch is embryo twinning, a cloning which occurs naturally when a mammal gives birth to twins. He separated the two-celled sea urchin embryo by shaking it until it split into two separate cells which then each grew into an independent organism (Royal, 2009). The scientist Hans Spemann, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Biology in Berlin, also used embryo twinning to clone a salamander in 1902. This time the organism was more complex (it had a backbone) and the cells of the embryo were much harder to split; the cells could not be separated by shaking them. Spemann was able to split the cells by creating a noose out of a strand of baby hair. The cloning was successful in this early stage of the embryo but when tried in a more advanced embryo the cloning was not successful (The University of Utah)The most famous cloning event in history may be the cloning of the first mammal, Dolly the sheep; this cloning was much more complicated than that done by Hans Spemann and it helped launch the modern cloning age (Royal ,2009)
The greatest problem with creative media-driven discussions like this is that they often reflect a misunderstanding of the science and people involved. The film "Multiplicity" presents human replicas, not clones in the form that we are discussing them here. Although the embryo's cells contain the same genetic code as the cells of the adult being cloned, the embryo must go through many years of development in an environment that is significantly different from that in which the adult developed. Because both our environment and our genetics substantially influence who we are, the embryo will not become the same person as the adult. In fact, because we also have a spiritual capacity to evaluate and alter either or both our environment and our genetics, human clones are bound to be quite different from the adults who provide their genetic code. (Kilner ,2002) The original resolution, offered by Costa Rica and supported by sixty-two other nations, would have banned all forms of human cloning. A distinction is being drawn between “reproductive cloning” (cloning to produce children) and “therapeutic cloning” (cloning to obtain embryonic stem cells for scientific research). However, there are no valid moral grounds for making this distinction. Biologically speaking, human life normally begins during...