Running Head: The Elaboration Likelihood
The Elaboration Likelihood Model Applied to Internet Advertising
In just a few years, the Internet has established itself as a very powerful platform that has changed the way we communicate. The Internet, as no other medium, has given an international or a "globalized" dimension to the world. It has become the universal source of information for over 1,463,632,361 people. Cisco conducted a study, which predicted that traffic on the world’s networks would increase annually 46 percent from 2007 to 2012, nearly doubling every two years. These results don’t come as a surprise considering that with a small investment almost anybody can have access to the World Wide Web. Among the many segments of the Internet, advertising is becoming the one with the greatest growth with an estimate of $21.1 billion for U.S. Internet ads in 2007, a 25 percent increase over 2006. (According to two reports on the size of the Internet advertising market released in February 2008 by The Interactive Advertising Bureau). The Kelsey Group provides a global estimate of $45 billion for Internet advertising in 2007, which is 7.4 percent of the total $600 billion global advertising market. That compares to a 6.1 percent share of global advertising for online ads in 2006. Researcher The Kelsey Group also has projected that online advertising will hit $147 billion by 2012. That’s worldwide advertising and it’s part of their report, “The Kelsey Group’s Annual Forecast (2007-2012): Outlook for Directional and Interactive Advertising.” There are fundamental differences between Internet advertising and traditional advertising. The main difference is the way Internet media is more able to be tracked in terms of success for an advertising campaign. Internet advertisers can easily track ad views and click through rates to the desired location which is usually a Website. While there are ways to track a campaign in traditional advertising methods, the Internet makes tracking results close to 100% accurate. Additionally Web users have more control over their viewing environment than television or radio. In traditional television and radio, viewers and listeners are almost forced into watching and hearing advertisements. Internet advertising allows for ads to be placed by Web content or search results creating a more inviting advertisement environment for the user already engaged in a particular subject. The Internet has allowed advertising to also further target an audience by IP addresses pinpoint in order to place ads that offer more relevance to the potential customer. With the introduction of the World Wide Web as a new advertising medium, understanding how people process advertising on the Internet has become the critical demand of Web advertisers. But there has been little research on advertising processes on the Web. This paper examines the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion and then explores how this theory can help explain information processing of Web advertisers. Elaboration Likelihood Model
The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion is a theory about the processes responsible for yielding to a persuasive communication and the strength of the attitudes that result from those processes. In an advertising context, the model holds that the process responsible for the effectiveness of ads is one of two relatively distinct routes to persuasion that differ according to “the extent to which the attitude change that results … is due to active thinking.” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1996). The first is known as the “central route,” and is “controlled, deep and systematic” (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), and it involves effortful cognitive activity, by which individuals focus their attention on message relevant ad information, and draw on prior experience and knowledge to evaluate and develop on information that was presented. When elaboration likelihood is high, the favorability of cognitive responses generated in...
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