The Eight Major Themes of Biology

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        The eight major themes of biology are seen throughout the biology course and are expressed in every chapter. In the chapters on cells (6,7,9,10,11,12, and 13), there were many examples of the themes of biology. The ones that related to these chapters the most were: Science is a process, evolution, energy transfer, relationship with structure to function, and regulation homeostasis. All of these themes are essential to be able to grasp the main concepts of biology.         The theme science is a process is a way of knowing. It either involves a discovery process using inductive reasoning, or a process of hypothesis and testing. Cell fractionation  is a process that allows for separation of the different organelles of a cell so their functions can be studied.This process begins with homogenization, which is the disruption of cells. Using a machine called a centrifuge that spins, friction  breaks down the cells without severely damaging the organelles. The centrifuge is spun at different speed and durations so that heavier pieces are separated from lighter particles. This process is used in science so that organelles in cells are able to be separated for studying purposes and we can know more about their functions and roles in the cell. In class, we experiment to learn more about biology and understand the processes better. Our AP biology class preformed an osmosis and difusion lab that showed the role of the cell membrane in regulating the passive movement of substances between the environment and the cytoplasm. We used dialysis tubing to study the effects of difusion and osmosis through a selectively permeable membrane. This lab showed us that substances and small molecules can move through selectively permeable membranes while large molecules cannot. Also, we were able to see that contents move from where there is more to where there is less so that it can reach a homeostasis state. In another lab, plant pigments and photosynthesis, the purpose was to...
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