processes underlying drug dependence has been thwarted by the lack
of a conceptual map of the terrain. Investigators have been in the
position of the crew in Lewis Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark.
The Bellman brought a map purporting to show the elusive Snark's
location: once the voyage was underway, however, the crew discovered
the map was completely blank. All too often those of us in
the field of drug dependence find ourselves floating on an uncharted
conceptual sea, zigging and zagging in search of a common causal
process. It would be as naive to suppose that all forms of heart
disease have a common cause. Instead, it is more reasonable to
suppose that, Just as there are similarities in the symptoms in
various forms of heart disease, there are also similarities in the
symptoms in various forms of drug dependence. However, in both
cases one cannot expect the normal controlling mechanisms to have
gone awry in precisely the same ways. It must be assumed that a
relatively limited number of variables, whose weightings differ
among forms of substance abuse, interact to produce the various
states of dependence (see Levison's discussion, this volume).
A second problem facing the field has been the absence of a unit of
analysis and a metric for assessing the control drugs exercise over
the behavior of the user. It wasn't until the mid 1960's that
control over Objectively measurable behavior was suggested as a criterion
for assessing dependence-producing properties of drugs.
Finally, we have struggled to develop more Objective ways of assessing
behavioral consequences of the drugs which are self-administered,
and to provide a consistent framework within which to interpret
those effects. Thus, like Janus's two faces, two oppositefacing
problems of drug dependence have oriented investigators in
opposite directions. Behavioral pharmacologists have treated drug... [continues]
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(2009, 08). The Effects of Prohibited Drug Intake on Human Behavior. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 08, 2009, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/The-Effects-Of-Prohibited-Drug-Intake-224800.html
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