The effects of Population Density and Noise
Noise and Population density has several different affects on individual’s Personal space, Privacy, and territory may have negative affects on individual, along with chronic noise. Population density and noise can have a variety of effects on people. The effects vary by individual but can lead to anxiety, increased stress levels, aggravation and more. As the population increases awareness of personal space is important along with the effects of crowding to prevent negative behaviors. Territoriality, Privacy, and Personal Space
Privacy is stated as the amount of control of access to an individual’s self or to a group (Altman, 1997). Privacy is described as the amount of information about an individual, and how the individual interact with other individuals (Hutchinson & Kowalski, 1999). Modern society and the increase in technology have changed the views of privacy, and how individuals view privacy between situation and other cultures (Clayton & Myers, 2008). “Personal space is the distance individuals choose to maintain interpersonal relationship with other individuals (Hutchinson & Kowalski, 1999).” Sommer (1969) states that personal space is the invisible area around an individual’s bodies that other individual’s may not enter. Personal space can be changed, and differs from individuals, culture, and situations. Research has shown that personal space is created by the human brain, and changes with each circumstance (Kennedy, Glascher, Tyszka & Adolphs, 2009) Personal space and territoriality are two ways individuals maintain privacy. Territoriality is reactive behaviors that an individual experiences. These behaviors include perceptions, objects, people, self-marker, and environmental props that are implied to the individual of others, or the environment (Edney, 1974). Humans use territoriality to maintain a specific space that he or she owns or is using. Individuals may show aggressive behaviors, and other actions to reaction toward others. An example would be the behaviors of a woman while nesting when she is pregnant. Research shows that environment variables are major factors in territoriality, and helps explain the behaviors from territoriality (Dyson-Hudson, & Smith, 1978). When resources decrease individuals protect his or her personal area, and the belongings he or she owns. Territoriality, Privacy, and Personal Space as Population Density Increases
The study by John Calhoun where he experiments population density by using rats is referred to the most often. The study shows that the rats behave normally when living in a simple living space. When the population of the rats increased their environment deteriorated (Straub, 2007). The rats became angrier, becoming territorial, some became cannibalistic, and the rat’s reproductive capacity decreased. Human behavior is not exactly the same as the rats, but is similar, and population density has its affects on populations. Population density affects individuals and contributes to crowding. Crowding is when individuals feel that his or her space is limited. Crowding also shows the affect of aggression, criminal acts, and social withdrawals (Stokols, 1972). To decrease crowding symptoms individual preserve his or her privacy, personal space, and obey territoriality as a social need. Since space decreases the importance, and demand of personal space, and privacy increase. The lack of privacy and personal space there are more competition, less control, and negative behaviors (Straub, 2007). Perception is an important part of population density. When ample space is perceived crowding decreases. This means in order to change perception of space is to provide more space. Straub (2007) states that population density can not be changed but designing the space to seem bigger can affect the thoughts of crowding. Changing the perception of crowding is consequential, and can have...