The Effects of Old Age on the Body

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Tim Cramer
Aging: What to expect as you get older
This article is all about physical effects on the body as a person gets older. For my essay, most of these facts will be important to catch the attention of my reader, and define the problem to my thesis. It seems that age affects every system of the body. The heart will become less efficient and must work harder. Bones, joints and muscles will become thinner, less dense, and weaker. Constipation and loss of bladder control will become more common. The eyes will be less able to produce tears and seeing things up close will be difficult. There will be less saliva in your mouth, which makes it harder to wash away bacteria, and the teeth will be easier to break. Skin will become less elastic and more fragile, and bruising may happen easier. Maintaining or changing your weight will be more difficult. Finally, the article strongly stresses that smoking can make most the effects listed above much worse. Depression in older adults and the elderly

This article addresses one of the mental concerns with old age. For my essay, these facts will show my reader that depression can take place in older adults, and define the problem to my thesis more. Many depressed seniors overlook their depression as just a part of aging. The common causes of depression in older adults are: health problems, loneliness and isolation, reduced sense of purpose, fears or anxieties, and recent death of loved ones. How depressed seniors can fight and prevent their depression: get out in the world, participate in activities you enjoy, volunteer your time, take care of a pet, learn a new skill, create opportunities to laugh, and maintain a healthy diet. It is important to know how depression affects the elderly for your own future and the people close to you.

Old age, also called senescence, in human beings, the final stage of the normal life span. Definitions of old age are not consistent from the standpoints of biology, demography (conditions of mortality and morbidity), employment and retirement, and sociology. For statistical and public administrative purposes, however, old age is frequently defined as 60 or 65 years of age or older. Old age has a dual definition. It is the last stage in the life processes of an individual, and it is an age group or generation comprising a segment of the oldest members of a population. The social aspects of old age are influenced by the relationship of the physiological effects of aging and the collective experiences and shared values of that generation to the particular organization of the society in which it exists. There is no universally accepted age that is considered old among or within societies. Often discrepancies exist as to what age a society may consider old and what members in that society of that age and older may consider old. Moreover, biologists are not in agreement about the existence of an inherent biological cause for aging. However, in most contemporary Western countries, 60 or 65 is the age of eligibility for retirement and old-age social programs, although many countries and societies regard old age as occurring anywhere from the mid-40s to the 70s.

Social programs
State institutions to aid the elderly have existed in varying degrees since the time of the ancient Roman Empire. England in 1601 enacted the Poor Law, which recognized the state’s responsibility to the aged, although programs were carried out by local church parishes. An amendment to this law in 1834 instituted workhouses for the poor and aged, and in 1925 England introduced social insurance for the aged regulated by statistical evaluations. In 1940 programs for the aged came under England’s welfare state system. State institutions to aid the elderly have existed in varying degrees since the time of the ancient Roman Empire. England in 1601 enacted the Poor Law, which recognized the state’s responsibility to the aged, although programs were carried out by local church parishes....
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