Cebu Normal University
Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City
The Effectiveness of Raw Sugarcane Bagasse as Oil Spill Sorbent
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Bioresearch
Jacobe, Sergio III T.
Ranile, Jiferson C.
Tañara, Vincent Paul S.
Mr. Dexter S. Ontoy
The Problem and its Setting
One of the main sources of water pollution is crude oil spill. Oil and petroleum products can pollute sources of water such as seas, oceans, rivers or underground waters. Oil spill over the oceans and seas requires prompt attentions due to their environmental and economical impacts (Annunciado et al., 2005). Oil spill is one, if not the biggest reason for the destruction of marine life since people used oil as fuel in on- water voyages. It may happen too often, but when it does, its effects can last for more than decades.
In general, wherever oil is produced, transported, stored and used, there will be a risk of spillage. Spilled oil has an undesirable taste and odor, affects tourism and economy, and causes severe environmental damages. The spilled oil eventually enters toxicity components into the human food chains and affects our health. Therefore, spilled oil causes enormous environmental problems unless it is removed as quickly as possible (Hussein et al., 2009). In the Philippines, oil spill has also been a problem since the Philippines is surrounded by bodies of water; it is not so surprising that it happens more than once every year. Oil spill is an accident and therefore, it is inevitable and the best way to deal with it is to prevent oil from spreading on a larger area, thus cleaning it as soon as possible. When scattered, it can cause a tremendous problem to the environment and the effect could be felt not only on water but on land as well. The main problem when oil spill happens is the clean- up, the method to be used and the length of time for the oil to be removed completely. The most common ways to clean
oil spill is through the use of hair and feathers but deemed slow. It can also be treated through chemical means but is very expensive and others are harmful (e.g. in- situ combustion, which is used to combust the spilled oil). Because of the disadvantages of the methods used for Oil spill cleanup, a call for an intermediate alternative is needed for future oil spills. Rationale of the Study
Water pollution due to oil compounds and other organic pollutants is one of the significant environmental problems that we face today, because when these pollutants come in contact with bodies of water, they can deal a lot of damage to the environment, most especially the living organisms in the affected ecosystem. Ever since oil and oil products have been used as an energy resource and the primary material in many industries, there has been serious risk of oil spill during derivation, transmission or consumption of these compounds usually because of various accidents. Oil pollutant sources are oil tankers which aside from the accidents they may cause, can produce a large amount of oily waste water in the form of ballast and bilge water. Oily bilge water is a combination of hydrocarbons, fresh water and sea water. The methods commonly used to remove oil involve, physiochemical, chemical, mechanical, and biological materials like skimmers, dispersants, oil booms, and sorbents. The main restriction of some of these techniques is their high cost. Among the many processes employed to remove these pollutants, adsorption has drawn great attention, especially those processes that are low-cost like biomass. The hydrophobic characteristic of biomass along with its high porosity develops a capillary force towards the adsorption of oils. Vegetal tissues with large surface area and big pores tend to adsorb organic contaminants through chemical and physical mechanisms, similar to charcoal. The various types of biomasses which are employed as adsorbents...
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