(Ipomoea batatas) TOPS
Brillo, Frances Antonette C.
Lleno, Angelica Ray
Miranda, Marian Adora Rose A.
Dasmariñas National High School
Special Science Curriculum
This chapter includes the prevailing problem situation based on observations. also, the objectives, scope and limitation, significance of the study, definition of terms and conceptual framework are included. I. Background of the study
Students in various parts of the Dasmariñas are finding difficulties in procuring proper and economical equipment for their experiments and lessons in the field of science, particularly in Chemistry and in Biology. Examples of those equipment include acid-base indicators like Litmus papers and the likes. These substances are used to indicate, if not measure the acidity and the basicity of a substance under question. For example, in the field of Biology, Litmus paper is used to find or determine the pH of urine, blood, and other liquids secreted by the body to determine diseases and diagnose those ailments. In addition, the term “Litmus test” has been defined as “a single factor that could affect an outcome” in the urban dictionary.
An acid-base indicator is a weak acid or a weak base. The undissociated form of the indicator is a different color than the iogenic form of the indicator. An indicator does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at specific hydrogen ion concentration, but rather, color change occurs over a range of hydrogen ion concentrations. This range is termed the color change interval. It is expressed as a pH range.
Colors of acid-base indicators change when exposed to either acidic or basic substances. Acidic substances rank one to six in the pH scale; neutral substances rank seven; and basic substances rank eight to 14. That means that substances which rank one in the pH scale are the most acidic while those substances which rank 14 are the most basic.
Numerous plants and flowers contain substances which change color in order to indicate pH levels in a sample to be tested. (Helmenstine, 2009; Johnsons, 2009; Rhodium, 2009; Sonawane et al, 2009) These plants change color when they come into contact with other acids and bases because they themselves are either acids or bases. Anthocyanins are purplish-red pigments found in many fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, beets, red cabbage, eggplants and the likes. These pigments are water-soluble and turn pink in acidic solutions. The losing and gaining electrons is accounted for this color change. (Lynn Bry, 1997) In contrast, Anthocyanins change to green in mildly alkaline substances and change to yellow in very alkaline solutions. (Sonawane L.V., 2007)
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. It bears a fruitof the same name, commonly used in cooking. The stem is often spiny. The flowers are white to purple, with a five-lobedcorolla and yellow stamens. The fruit is fleshy, has a meaty texture, and is less than 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter on wild plants, but much larger in cultivated forms. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry, and contains numerous small, soft seeds, which are edible, but have a bitter taste because they contain nicotinoid alkaloids; this is unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. Distilled water is water that has many of its impurities removed through distillation. Distilled water is also commonly used to top off lead acid batteries used in cars and trucks. The presence of other ions commonly found in tap water will cause a drastic reduction in an automobile's battery lifespan. Some people use distilled water for household aquariums because it lacks the chemicals found in tap water supplies. It is...