NAME: DaeNia La Rodé
DATE: 25TH January, 2011.
FORM CLASS: L6 3
AIM: To investigate the effect of substrate concentration on the enzyme amylase INTRODUCTION:
Enzymes are perhaps one of the most important proteins of the human body. Enzymes such as amylase, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates, work by means of surface catalysis. In other words, the surface of the enzyme enables other molecules to react in a manner they would not be able to without the surface of the enzyme present. Enzymes achieve this by lowering the amount of activation energy needed for anabolic reactions, allowing these reactions to occur as catabolic reactions would. Chemical reactions require an amount of energy to start them off; this is known as activation energy. Enzymes are generally large proteins made up of several hundred amino acids, and often contain a non-proteinaceous group called the prosthetic group that is important in the actual catalysis. In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the substance to be acted upon, or substrate, binds to the active site of the enzyme. The enzyme and substrate are held together in an enzyme-substrate complex by hydrophobic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds. Enzymes act as catalysts to lower the required activation energy. Enzymes do this by weakening the covalent bond with a substrate molecule or by holding the substrate in a particular position that increases the probability of a reaction occurring between the molecules. Products can only be formed when effective collisions occur, this means that reactant molecules colliding is not enough to form effective collisions. Reactions can only occur when particles first collide. The collision present must have enough energy impact to overcome the Activation Energy; they must also have a proper positioning to be effective. Increase the concentration of the substrate and there will be increasing substrate molecules as compared to enzyme in...