This essay will look at the effect of dislocation on mental health, what factors contribute to poor mental health from biological and psychosocial perspectives. We begin by looking at what factors promote positive mental health before looking at the role of social context and the environment in negating these very factors. We look at an example where the environment can make a negative contribution to mental health. Moving the focus to a more biological perspective we examine how an individual might be genetically more predisposed to depression and poor mental health via the serotonin transporter gene. Stress as a precursor to poor mental health is then explored in relation to the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and then in the wider psychosocial context of hierarchy and inequality in society. Finally we look at some case studies that underpin how an individual becomes isolated after experiencing poor mental health and how can serve to reinforce dislocation and serve as an obstacle to recovery.
Social context and dislocation
Individuals who report good subjective well being demonstrate a lack of negative emotion such as hostility, they cope with the everyday hurdles such as stress (Blaumeister and Leary, 1995) and they also demonstrate relatively good health (Marks and Shah, 2005). Positive psychology also cites the importance of purpose in an individual’s life-a sense of engagement (Marks and Shah, 2005) with a lack of materialist values-those in pursuit of materialist gratification purport lower well being (Kasser, 2002). The role of individual differences and how we interact with the environment is offered as a key influence of well-being. Lately, social cohesiveness-each person forms part of a social network, experiences the feeling of belonging to a greater good (Post 2007). The key aspect here is belonging. In dislocation an individual experiences a loss of identity in becoming excluded from society-they do not feel as they belong-often they feel undervalued, unappreciated and a lack of self worth as a result of unemployment or family breakdown.
Alexander (2000, 2008) and Peele and Degrandpre (1998) found evidence to support the role of social context in developing a drug addiction: simply put, people with a developed social network suffer better mental health than those who are living in a psychological void detached from society. The role of social context affecting mental health is illustrated in Vancouver. This city has a high immigrant population with a statistically high alcohol and drug death rate and arrests for drug use (Alexander, 2000). Social adversity and stress that challenge this large immigrant population are thought to be key factors in developing mental health disorders. This theme of stress as an precursor to mental health and addiction is collaborated by Klanecky et al. (2009) who found individuals exposed to early childhood adversity and social disruption are more likely to experience addiction later in life.
Stress, biology and depression
This is also supported by Caspi et al (2003) who sees the impact of stress as a key trigger to impaired mental health in early years. Caspi et al., found individuals with either one or two ‘short’ alleles in the 5-HTT (serotonin transporter) gene who experienced three of more stressors (stress or maltreatment) in the five years prior to depression were significantly more likely to be depressed. The role of societal factors such as early stress that mediate their influence through genetics in gene expression further supports the role of the environment and how as individuals we engage with it with varying degrees of success due to our own biology and inheritance.
One response to stress one is triggered by the amygdala that triggers corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) that in turn alerts the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). This CRF in turn triggers hypothalamus to...