The Effect of Gender on Anxiety Levels in
General Anxiety, Test Anxiety, and Social Anxiety
Henderson State University
This research was carried out as partial fulfillment towards experimental methods course by Mallory Turner. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Mallory Turner, Department of Psychology, Henderson State University, 1100 Henderson Street, Arkadelphia, AR 71999 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract
I will be exploring the troubles of anxiety in the men and women of today’s world. Previously, women were more likely to have coexisting anxiety disorders than men, particularly among European American women. This suggests that anxiety disorders are more predominant in women than in men. In my study, fifty adult men and fifty adult women partook, which ages ranging 18 and up. Six different questionnaires were used: Anxiety Questionnaire (Ducklows), IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire (Cattell, Krug, & Scheier, Test Attitude Inventory (Spielberger), Sarason Test Anxiety, Social Anxiety Questionnaire (Heimburg & Becker), and the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (Turner, Beidel, Deborah, Dancu, Constance). Results conclude that female participants have higher anxiety levels than male participants in general anxiety and test anxiety, but men and women have similar results in social anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, gender difference, social anxiety, test anxiety
The Effect of Gender on Anxiety Levels
Anxiety disorders affect 2-4 percent of the United States’ population and roughly 18 percent of the world’s population. Anxiety is associated with a wide range of physical illnesses, medication side effects, and other psychological disorders. Throughout the world, anxiety disorders are 1.5–2 times more prevalent among women than men; the reasons for this are still unknown. We proposed this study to investigate the difference in levels of anxiety between men and women in several areas and the reason why intense anxiety tends to be more predominant in women. By pinpointing specific reasoning for this, each gender can be treated and nurtured differently by maintaining and controlling the focal points of their anxiety such as test anxiety, social anxiety, and so on. There are multiple studies to support the hypothesis of higher anxiety in women over multiple areas of study such as general anxiety, test anxiety, and social anxiety. I’ve tested to see which gender is more prone to high anxiety and also what the most common trigger is among each gender. One common form of anxiety is performance, or test, anxiety. Test anxiety is a rather common experience among students and has a hindering effect on a student’s academic performance and general well-being. A very recent study by Samuel Akanbi (2013) assessed the level of test anxiety in senior secondary school students across gender, year of study, school type and parental educational background, but we are interested directly on the gender factor of the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. 362 students from selected senior secondary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria participated in the study. Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (r= 0.87) was used to collect data for the study which was then analyzed using a t-Test. Results of this study show significant differences in test anxiety scores across gender, female students scoring higher. (Akanbi, 2013) Another study related to performance anxiety was done in order to measure girls' and boys' levels of math anxiety and its effect on their performance while controlling for test anxiety. Math anxiety is a concept associated with test anxiety. 433 British secondary school students in grades 7, 8 and 10 completed mental mathematics tests and questionnaires for test anxiety and math anxiety. Results showed no gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of math anxiety and test anxiety were higher for girls than for...