The Effect of Earthquake in Japan

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Contents
1.0 Abstract1
2.0 Literature Context and Justification2
2.1 Introduction2
2.2 Problem Statement3
2.3 Aim and objectives5
3.0 Research Methodologies6
3.1 Questionnaires6
3.2 Experiments7
3.3 Secondary materials and statistics7
4.0 Anticipated Findings / Contributions8
5.0 Working Programme and Time Table9
6.0 Overall Structure and Planned Organisation of Dissertation10
6.1 Flow chart of research methodology11
6.2 Structure and plan of report12
7.0 Conclusion13
8.0 Reference14

The effect of earthquake on buildings in Japan
1.0 Abstract
The country of Japan is an island. The population in Japan is considered quite high, about 127,817,277 people in this small country. Therefore, this has made Japan became one of the most tightly populated country in the world, ranking the 36th placing. Earthquakes are very common in Japan. In fact, Japan had suffered more earthquakes compared to other. Therefore, engineers have put in a lot of effort to come up with ideas that enable buildings not to collapse whenever there is an earthquake. Even after spending so much time and even when our technology is so advanced, there are still no solutions for buildings not to collapse from the damage done by earthquake, this has made living in an earthquake area is not safe. In this research, the very main aim is to find out the effect of earthquake on buildings in Japan and as for the objectives, I would like to find out is Japan’s building a safe place to live in due to the earthquake, what are the techniques used for buildings in Japan to avoid structural damage from the earthquake, are there any building codes for Japan because of the earthquake and what are the technologies used specially for the earthquake. In this research, I will be using quantitative research as the main methods for examples questionnaire, experiments, and secondary materials and statistics.

2.0 Literature Context and Justification
2.1 Introduction
The earth’s surface is travelling in a very slow motion continuously, also known as the plate tectonics, the motion of gigantic rigid plates at the surface of our earth in response to flow of rock within earth. Our entire world is covered with the plates which will be friction against each other, dropping beneath each others, and/or spreading separately from each other. From time to time, there will be rough motions because of the plates trapped together at the boundaries but others are still moving, this will cause the rocks along the boundaries to be distorted, causing strain. The strain will carry on building up until the rock is not capable to withstand the force anymore. Then, the rock will break causing two sides to move. The shaking that radiates out from the breaking rock is what actually causes earthquake. The building technique is very important so that it can limit down the structural damage done by the earthquake. Different type of ground condition will require different type of foundation to counter the damage. * Reinforced building material, by using steel rods, it can increase the tensile strength of the structure. This will allow the material to distort while swaying without crumbling. * Foundation anchoring can help to avoid the structure being shaken off from the base. * Base isolation absorbs the forces of the earthquake by allowing the building to slip forth and back on the groundwork. * Pile foundation uses long pillar to get around loose gravely soil. Therefore, it is very important to understand the type of soil so that different kind of building technique can be implied for the best result of preventing structural damage from earthquake.

2.2 Problem Statement
Nowadays, Japan is full with skyscrapers especially in Tokyo. These buildings undergo higher risks and dangers due to their tallness. There are about 47 structures are higher than 180 meters. Even though the current technologies are so advanced, it is still unable to stop...
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