The Effect of Age and Marital Status on Job Satisfaction

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THE EFFECT OF AGE AND MARITAL STATUS ON THE JOB SATISFACTION OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS

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Submitted By:
Solomon Fernando Gomez

Muhammad Imran Malik
Ph.D. Scholar.

Submitted To: Dr. Nadeem Safwan

Foundation University Institute of Management and Computer Sciences Rawalpindi.

The Effect of Age and Marital Status on the Job Satisfaction of University Teachers

Abstract
This study has been conducted with a view to see the level of job satisfaction among the married and unmarried, university teachers within Rawalpindi and Islamabad. This study probes how much satisfied are the university teachers by looking at a specific aspects like age and marital status, with the satisfaction level of the teachers. The study has been conducted by using an adopted questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was distributed among the private and public sector university teachers, on the basis of convenience sampling. A sample of 200 university teacher was considered and 107 respondents responded to the questionnaires, by producing 53.5% response rate. Among which 69.2% were male respondents and 30.8% were female respondents. To confirm its reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated, which resulted into a score of 0.835. Analysis and evaluation was done using SPSS. Major findings of the study showed that the teachers in the initial ages are less satisfied than the teachers having age 45 years and above. And unmarried teachers are more satisfied as compared to married teachers. Keywords – Job satisfaction, University teachers, Pakistan, Islamabad, Rawalpindi.

Introduction
Several studies have been conducted on the subject of job satisfaction, very few of them are about the university teachers. This paper looks into the level of Job satisfaction among the university teachers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Pakistan has many universities in the public as well as the private sector, which are playing a pivotal role in spreading higher level of education, which ultimately contribute towards the economic growth of the country. The present study is based on the data collected from the university teachers of the twin cities. The total welfare of the society is associated with the satisfaction of the academic staff of the university, as they inculcate the precious wealth of knowledge among the youth. Job satisfaction is the area which has been discovered by many people. Locke (1976) estimated that, as of 1976, about 3,350 articles or dissertations had been written on the topic. In 1992, Cranny et al. suggested that more than 5,000 studies of job satisfaction have been published. In a more recent estimate, Oshagbemi (1996) suggested that if a count of relevant articles and dissertations was made, Locke’s estimate, made only 20 years earlier, would probably be doubled. Typically, job satisfaction is conceptualized a general attitude towards an object, the job. The definitions of Job satisfaction given by Locke (1976, p.1300) “a pleasurable or positive emotional estate, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences” In general therefore, job satisfaction refers to an individual’s positive emotional reaction to a job that results from the person’s comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired, anticipated or deserved. The topic of job satisfaction is an important one because of its relevance to the physical and mental well being of employees, specially, University teachers with respect to this study. It is clear that the majority of the dominant theoretical and empirical work in this field has been done in the West such as North America and Western Europe (e.g. Hagedorn, 1994; 1996; Johnsrud and Heck, 1998; Kanji and Tambi, 1999.). Seldom has any research been done in other parts of the world that is in the developing and underdeveloped countries on this subject. Therefore, more research is needed to understand the satisfaction of the university teaching staff in the developing country like Pakistan. The results of...
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