The Dynamics of People and Organizations

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Chapter 1
The Dynamics of People and Organizations
Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people – as individuals and as groups – act within organizations. Organizational Behavior is a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly adding to its knowledge base. Goals of Organizational Behavior (Most Sciences share four goals) * Describe (How people behave under a variety of conditions) * Understand (Why people behave as they do.)

* Predict (Managers should have the capacity to predict employees actions on a certain day and take preventive actions) * Control ( To develop some human activity at work)
FORCES
1. People
People make up the internal Social System of the Organization. That System consists of individuals and groups. There are formal and informal groups. Groups are dynamic. They form, change, and disband. People are the living, thinking, feeling beings who work in the organization to achieve their objectives. Remember that Organizations exist to serve people, rather than people existing to serve organizations. The Workforce of today organizations are richly diverse (Employees have a wide array of educational background, talents and perspectives) Managers need to be tuned in to these diverse pattern and trends and be prepared to adapt to them.

2. Structure
Structure defines the formal relationship and use of people in organizations. Different Jobs are required to accomplish all of an organization’s activities. Thus, there are managers, employees, accountants and assemblers etc., in an organization. People in the Organization have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be effectively coordinated. 3. Technology

Technology provides the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The Technology used has a significant influence on working relationships. The great benefit of technology is that it allows people to do more and better work, but it also restricts people in various ways. It has cost as well as benefits. 4. Environment

All organizations operate within an internal and an external environment. A single organization does not exist alone. It is part of a larger System that contains many other elements, such as government, the family, and other organizations. Numerous changes in the environment create demands on organizations. Individual organizations, such as a Factory, or a school, cannot escape being influenced by the external environment. It influences the attitudes of people, affects working conditions, and provides competition for resources and power. Positive Characteristics the OB Field

1. One major strength of Organizational Behavior is its Interdisciplinary nature. It integrates the Behavioral Sciences with other Social Sciences that can contribute to the subject. 2. Another strength is its emerging base of Research Knowledge and Conceptual Frameworks.

3. A third major strength of Organizational Behavioural is the increasing Acceptance of Theory and Research by practising managers.

Fundamental Concepts
1 The Nature of People
* Individual Differences: People have much in common but each person in the world is also individually different. This belief that each person is different from all other is typically called the ‘Law Of Individual Differences’ * Perception: People look at the world and see things differently. Even when they are presented with the same object, two people may view it in two different ways. Their view of their objective environment is filtered by perception, which is the unique way in which each person sees, organizes, and interprets things * A Whole Person: Organizations employ a Whole person not only a person’s skills or brain. A persons home life cannot be separated from his/her work life. * Motivated Behavior: Normal...
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