The Different Types Of Chemical Reactions

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Types Of Chemical Reactions

Aim: To investigate, discuss and identify several different types of chemical reactions through a series of tests and observations.

Decomposition of a carbonate by heating

Apparatus:

Spatula

Bunsen

Test tube (x2)

Copper (II) carbonate

Stopper and delivery tube

Limewater

Procedure:

1. Place a spatular of Copper (II) carbonate (CuCO2) in a test tube.

2. Fit with stopper and delivery tube leading into another test tube, filled with limewater.

3. Heat the test tube containing the Copper (II) carbonate and observe any changes that take place to it or the limewater.

Results/observations: As the light blue Copper (II) carbonate heated, It turned black and created a gas which bubbled through the limewater leaving a milky white precipitate.

Discussion: When the Copper (II) carbonate heated, enough energy was present to start a reaction in which it reacted with the surrounding oxygen in which the Copper (II) carbonate decomposed:

2CuCO2 + O2 2CO2 + 2CuO

Copper (II) carbonate + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Copper oxide

The Carbon dioxide then travelled through the delivery tube and through the limewater:

CO2 + Ca(OH) 2 CaCO3 + H2O

Carbon dioxide + Limewater (Calcium hydroxide) Calcium carbonate + Water

This reaction leaves us with the calcium carbonate precipitate and indication that Carbon dioxide was the gas that was released through the first reaction. From this reaction it is possible to determine that a reaction between a carbonate and oxygen (burning) results in carbon dioxide and a metal oxide.

Metal(X) Carbonate + Oxygen (and Heat) Carbon Dioxide + Metal(X) Oxide

Decomposition of a carbonate with an acid

Apparatus:

Spatular

Calcium carbonate

2mol L-1 Hydrochloric acid

Test tube (x2)

Limewater

Procedure:

1. Place a spatular of calcium carbonate into a test tube and add 2-3 cm of hydrochloric acid.

2. Fit the first test tube with a stopper and delivery tube, leading into another filled with limewater.

3. Observe reactions in both test tubes

Results/observations:

When the hydrochloric acid was added to the calcium carbonate, bubbles formed on the chips and rose to the top of the hydrochloric acid. This gas bubbles through the limewater which formed a milky white precipitate.

Discussion:

The first reaction which took place between the acid and calcium carbonate, the following reaction took place:

CaCO3+2HCL H2O + CO2 + CaCl2

Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Water + Carbon dioxide + Calcium chloride

This leaves calcium chloride dissolved in water in the first test tube, and as before, the carbon dioxide travelled through the delivery tube and through the limewater where the following reaction took place:

CO2 + Ca(OH) 2 CaCO3 + H2O

Carbon dioxide + Limewater (Calcium hydroxide) Calcium carbonate + Water

Which in this case confirms the presence of carbon dioxide.

From this it is possible to conclude that when a solid carbonate is decomposed in an acid, carbon dioxide and a metal salt dissolved in water are formed:

Metal(X) carbonate + Acid Water + Metal(X) salt + Carbon dioxide

Oxidation of a metal

Apparatus:

Magnesium Ribbon

Bunsen

Metal tongs

Protective mat

Procedure:

1. Light a Bunsen and hold a piece of magnesium in the flame with the tongs.

2. Once ignited, hold the magnesium over the protective mat and avoid direct eye contact while burning.

3. note observations

Results/observations:

Once ignited the magnesium burned a bright white and left a white powder on the protective mat.

Discussion:

When held in the flame, enough energy is present to trigger a reaction between the magnesium and the surrounding oxygen:

2Mg + O2 2MgO

Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium oxide

From this we are able to determine that:

Metal(X) + Oxygen (and heat) Metal(X) oxide

Reaction of a reactive metal with a dilute acid

Apparatus:...
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