As we all know, an organism is made up of about a hundred trillion cells. All these cells are actually come from a single cell. Therefore, cell division is crucial for the growth and reproduction of organisms. There are two types of cell division – mitosis and meiosis. In this essay, I will compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis, and also, discuss the roles and significance of mitosis and meiosis in the life of flowering plants and mammals.
Mitosis is the process by which a cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate diploid nuclei. Meiosis is a two-part cell division process in sexually reproducing organisms, which results in gametes with one-half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.
For the comparison and contrast of the processes of mitosis and meiosis, let us focus on their similarities. Firstly, during interphase, both mitosis and meiosis involve replication of chromosomes. Secondly, during prophase, the nuclear membrane of the both cells that undergoing mitosis and meiosis disintegrates. Thirdly, during metaphase, the chromosomes line up and each of them are attached to the spindle fibres in both mitosis and meiosis. Fourthly, during anaphase, the chromosomes are pulled by spindle fibres into two halves and move to opposite poles of the cell in both types. In the meantime, the cytoplasm starts to divide in both mitosis and meiosis. Lastly, during telophase, new nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis.
On the other hand, there are differences between the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Firstly, during prophase, the members of each pair of homologous chromosomes pair up in meiosis, but not in mitosis. Furthermore, in meiosis, crossing over may occur in this stage. A small part of DNA of the members of chromosomes will be exchanged, result in variation of genes. Nevertheless, this will not happen in mitosis. Secondly,...