The Different Theories of Intelligence

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While many will claim their theories of intelligence are more accurate than others, it's really about one's background and what influences they've had on the subject. Much like taking statements from witnesses at a crime scene. Everyone will have their own version of the events that took place. As the saying goes there is always three sides to the story. Howard Gardner developed a theory of multiple intelligences (7 originally). Unlike most other theories, Gardner does support his approach purely through statistical reanalysis of data, but also involves developmental, neurophysiologic, case study and educational evidence. According to Gardner, the intelligence consists of linguistic, logical-mathematic, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal. Later he has added existential and naturalist intelligences. Robert Sternberg proposed a triarchic model of three intelligences, namely: analytical, practical ) and creative. Analytical is similar to standard psychometric definition of intelligence, Practical is the one, solving real life problems in everyday life and Creative is responsible for insight, synthesis, and the ability to react to novel stimuli and situations. The existence of Practical and Creative shows that this theory views intelligence wider then it gets from a classical Spearman's "General Ability " theory and, in part, explains why some people, who have very high IQ often fail to succeed in life. Steinberg has developed STAT (Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test), a battery of multiple-choice questions that measures all 3 intelligences on separate scales. Raymond Cattell believed that "General Ability" is composed of fluid and crystallized intelligence. He considered that fluid intelligence was based on the abilities to see the relations between things and prevailed during the first part of a person's life, while the crystallized intelligence was based on acquired knowledge and skills and prevailed after about...
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