Do you know that British colonists had invaded our country, Malaysia and also occupied our territory? Ouch! Yes, indeed it was a history resembling continuous or intermittent record of the time. But if you understand well, the best part of this history was Malaysia enabled independent from British colonists. An independent country that enable feels citizens with hopes and freedom. Evelyn Nesamanie Samuel once said: “I still remembers the sounds of jubilation mingled with the cries of joy and laughter, followed by the cries of Merdeka was deafening and not easy to forget”. (Bavani, 2012). According to the journal, The Malaysian Experience in Developing National Identity, Multicultural Tolerance and Understanding through Teaching Curricula, Malaysia defines as a federal constitutional monarch located in the heart of Southeast Asia. (Dr. Khader, 2012). Although before and after independence for our country, Malaysia aims to improve living standard of citizens, both of their leading style and expectations for citizens differ significantly. While before independence for Malaysia is underdeveloped on various aspects, after independence for Malaysia gets rid of previous shortcomings to enhance on various aspects. The changes of Malaysia after independence can be classified into three main changes which are national organization, economy and technology.
First of all, the most main change is the national organization. The national organization of Malaysia before and after independence is colonization and democracy. According to the journal, A View of the Art of Colonization, With Present Reference to the British Empire; In Letters Between a Statesman and a Colonist, colonization which is the principal elements are emigration and the permanent settlement of the emigrants on unoccupied land. Democracy is a well-known word for people and form of government in which all eligible citizens have fair to take decision that affect their own lives. Indeed, democracy is a set of principles about freedom. Before independent of Malaysia, it is called Malaya which formed by different races and various custom. During the British colonization, British was implemented a strategy which called “divide and rule” policy. Among British occupation of Malaya, there was no clear policy implemented on education for Malaya citizens. Therefore, various vernacular schools were presents and only to particular ethnic group. Various vernacular schools were categorized into four types which included English-Medium, Malay-Medium, Chinese-Medium, and Tamil-Medium. By following Malaysia’s independence, the government has focused on developing a national system of education. The education system was centralized and the Ministry of Education established the national curriculum to all start schools. Since 1961, The Rahman Talib Report stated that education emphasized on the use of Malay as medium of institution. At the same time, it was a rule which called The Education Act 1961. When the Education Act was passed, the National Education System was implemented. The National Education System made Malay was compulsory in all government-aided primary and secondary schools and attached to selected English-medium secondary schools. Mont said that: “ Sustainable lifestyles are patterns of action and consumption, used by people to affiliate and differentiate themselves from others, which: meet basic needs, provide a better quality of life, minimize the use of natural resources and emissions of waste and pollutants over the lifecycle, and do not jeopardize the needs of future generations ”. During the British colonization, citizens were not focus on their healthy life. British also not implemented clear policy to care about Malaya’s citizens. British was brought more people came to Malaya and tried to help Malaya’s citizens on other aspects to bring more profits or gains to themselves. Since Malaysia’s independence, the government planning a policy or held a campaign to let...
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