The Difference between Behavior and Learning

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Concept Any class (i.e., group, category) the members of which share one or more defining features. CS+ In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that is regularly paired with a US. (Cf. CS–.) CS– In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that regularly appears in the absence of the US. (Cf. CS+.) Differential outcomes effect The finding that discrimination training proceeds more rapidly when different behaviors produce different reinforcers. Abbreviated DOE. Discrimination The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of certain stimuli, but not in their absence. (Cf. generalization.) DOE See differential outcomes effect.

Errorless discrimination training A form of discrimination training in which the S– is introduced in very weak form and gradually strengthened. The usual result is that discrimination is achieved with few or no errors. Also called the Terrace procedure. Excitatory gradient In Spence's theory of generalization and discrimination, a generalization gradient showing an increased tendency to respond to the S+ or CS+ and stimuli resembling them. (Cf. inhibitory gradient.) Experimental neurosis Any bizarre or neurotic-like behavior induced through an experimental procedure such as discrimination training. Generalization The tendency for a learned behavior to occur in the presence of stimuli that were not present during training. (Cf. discrimination.) Generalization gradient Any graphic representation of generalization data. Inhibitory gradient In Spence's theory of generalization and discrimination, a gradient showing a decreased tendency to respond to the S– or CS– and stimuli resembling them. (Cf. excitatory gradient.) Matching to sample A discrimination training procedure in which the task is to select from two or more comparison stimuli the one that matches a sample. Abbreviated MTS. Mismatching A variation of matching to sample in which reinforcement is available for selecting the comparison stimulus that is different from the sample. Also called oddity matching. Oddity matching See mismatching.

Peak shift The tendency following discrimination training for the peak of responding in a generalization gradient to shift away from the CS– or S–. S+ A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will be reinforced. Also called SD, pronounced ess-dee. (Cf. S_.) Semantic generalization Generalization based on an abstract (as opposed to a physical) property of a stimulus. Simultaneous discrimination training A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S– are presented at the same time. Stimulus control The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of an S+ but not in the presence of an S–. (Cf. discrimination.) Successive discrimination training A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S– are presented one after the other in random sequence. S– A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will not be reinforced. Also called S?, pronounced ess-delta. (Cf. S+.) Chapter 10

Behavioral economics See experimental economics.
Chain schedule A complex reinforcement schedule that consists of a series of simple schedules, each of which is associated with a particular stimulus, with reinforcement delivered only on completion of the last schedule in the series. (Cf. tandem schedule.) Concurrent schedule A complex reinforcement schedule in which two or more simple schedules are available at the same time. Continuous reinforcement A reinforcement schedule in which a behavior is reinforced each time it occurs. Abbreviated CRF. (Cf. intermittent schedule.) Cooperative schedule A complex reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the behavior of two or more individuals. CRF See continuous reinforcement.

Discrimination hypothesis The proposal that the PRE occurs because it is harder to discriminate between intermittent reinforcement and extinction than between continuous reinforcement and...
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