A Parents Look on Biological, Cognitive and Socioemotional
Factors Influencing Childhood
Jacqueline and Mark Walker were eager to enter parenthood after being married three years ago. Practicing with their nieces and nephews, the Walker family felt that they were prepared to raise children of their own. Now, after having two kids, Jacqueline and Mark are worried that their parenting skills need more work. Bella, now eleven months old, is an easy going child who reacts with a smile to the voices of her parents, the dolls in her crib and much more. Yet Bentley, at three years, is easily angered and hard to comfort. With Bella and Bentley’s stages of growth being drastically different, the Walkers are unsure of how to teach them so the children can develop normally.
When it comes to parenting, understanding how biological, cognitive, and socioemotional factors influence each child’s development is important. Because Bella and Bentley are in different age groups, infancy and early childhood, it is essential that the Walkers recognize that aspects of their children’s growth will be considerably different. Biological factors are elements that are physical in nature. During infancy, the rate of growth is extremely fast. The birth weight of the child is nearly tripled at four months of age. Most of the growth is occurring in the patterns of the brain. As infants absorb the world around them, the brain is trying to keep up with each action learned. Understanding motor development is one of the infant’s motivations to learn. As the child starts sitting up straight without interference from others, crawling, and gripping it allows he or she to grow independently. Using reflexes such as sucking and grabbing or maintaining gross and fine motor skills also allow the child to gain more responsibility. In the case of the Walkers, it is important that the parents protect Bella’s head the most because as the brain develops rapidly, any...