Money and banking
The demand for money
Exam question: "The demand for money is purely a transactionary demand." Discuss
The objective of this question is to discuss the statement: "The demand for money is purely a transactionary demand." This essay will begin by with determination of money. It will show that it is usual to distinguish three reasons why people want to hold their assets in the form of money. And these reasons are: the transactions motive, the precautionary motive and the asset or speculative motive. These motives are known as theories of money demand.
Money anything which is generally acceptable as a means of payment and which fulfil the four key functions of money', namely acting as a medium of exchange, unit of account, store of value and standard of deferred payment. In other word, money is a stock. It is the quantity of circulating currency and deposits held at any given time. We hold money now to spend it later. People can hold their wealth in various forms money, bills, bonds, equities and property.
The demand for money refers to the desire to hold money: to keep your wealth in the form of money, rather than spending it on goods and services or using it to purchase financial assets such as bonds or shares. People choose to hold their assets in the form of money because of three motives: the transactions motive, the precautionary motive and speculative motive.
Transactions demand for money
Individuals need to hold money in order to meet daily transactions such as buying petrol, paying for groceries or purchasing a newspaper. Everyone will hold a certain amount of money. The average amount held for transactions purposes depends upon the level of money income, the price level and the frequency of pay days. In terms of money income, the higher the money income, the greater the average expenditure on goods and services over the time period, hence the higher the level of transactions balances required. If the price level increases, then it is also likely that the demand for money for transaction purposes will be higher. In the case of the frequency of pay days, the less frequent the pay days over any given time period, the higher the transaction demand for money. The transaction demand for money will contrast as interest rates rise and expand as interest rates fall. It is easier to hold some money than put our income into interest-earning assets, to be resold later when we need money for purchases, because of brokerage and bank charges, time and effort.
The precautionary demand for money
The demand for money is also based on the desire to provide for the unexpected. The precautionary demand for money allows the individual to cover unforeseen events, such as the car breaking down, a lengthy period off work through illness, or an unexpected redundancy. The higher the income received per time period, the more costly any unforeseen event (e.g. loss of employment) is likely to be, and therefore the greater the precautionary demand for money to hold. As the rate of interest rises, the precautionary demand for money will contract.
Transactions (T) and precautionary (P) demands for money are shown here as inversely related to the rate of interest, with T + P rising as the interest rate falls, and vice versa. At any given rate of interest (e.g. r1) arise in the level of income will shift the T + P curve to the right, raising the quantity of money demanded from M1 to M2.
The speculative demand for money
This demand for money differs from the other two. The transactions and precautionary motive relate to the function of money as a medium of exchange, whereas a speculative demand for money is based on the expectation of making a speculative gain and avoiding a speculative loss. The speculative demand refers to the desire to hold either money or fixed income bonds. The price of bonds and the rate of interest are inversely related. For example, the price of the bond is...
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