University of Phoenix
The Deception of D-Day
Was it through deception or quantity of material and personnel that aided the Allies win over the Axis in the European theater? Operation Fortitude started out small, just like all military operations it grew expeditiously as it matured. This allowed for the turning of German spies into double agents, hiding thousands of tons of equipment in plain sight, even the use of magical illusions brought the Allied forces closer and closer to the eventual day of June 6, 1944, or as more know it as D-Day. This Operation was so large in fact it is a miracle that it could be keep hidden at all.
The history of D-day is widely known, what is not widely known is the deception that the allies went through to convince the German intelligence and German high command of where the Allies wanted to invade. Knowing that a deception of a grand scale was almost impossible but capable, the Allies could pull off the greatest “magic” act of World War II. From hiding the massive army they had planned to hiding the massive floating docks until it was time to bring them to the shores where they would allow war materials, provisions, and fuel to be unloaded for the invasion force.
During the preparations of the allies to invade Germany, Germany sent over numerous agents, almost 50 were in England at one time. London Controlling Section (LCS) was the leading factor in capturing these agents. Established in 1941 and placed under the supervision of Oliver Stanley with the primary role in working with the Allied forces for strategic military deception of the German intelligence community.
When Operation Fortitude North was conceived, it main mission was to mislead German intelligence into expecting an invasion to come by the way of Norway. Using this kind of ruse, the Allies wanted to threaten the smaller army postings of Norway in hopes that Hitler would assign more troops in that area and away from the original proposed landing zones along France. By doing so this lead to the massing of German forces along Norway’s coast and leaving the other landing zones in France at Utah Beach, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword.
Within Operation Fortitude North were two smaller operations, Operation Skye and Operation Graffham. These two smaller operations were to deceive the German intelligence community even more from fake radio transmissions to the deception of political and economic situations against Sweden.
Operation Skye was the code name that the allies to use radio deception of Fortitude North. Having radio traffic between fictional units scattered throughout the English country side. Overseen by Colonel R. M. McLeod, it became operational by the 6th of April, 1944. This was also part of the famed “Ghost Army.”
Operation Graffham was even more of a deception for the German Intelligence that the allies were working on in by pressuring Sweden with political and economic talks. Allied diplomats would by beginning negotiations by asking for flights of reconnaissance mission over the Swedish territory which if did happen would allow access to the German war front in that area as well as allow them to build up forces in that area for another invasion front into the Axis front.
Fortitude South was much like Fortitude North in which they were allowing the German Intelligence to believe the Allies were in the process of gearing up for an a invasion at Pas de Calais in France by the 1st U.S. Army Group or (FUSAG), which was a fictitious group. Originally conceived in...