The Dangers of Mining in the Philippines

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The Dangers of Mining Industry in the Philippines

A Term Paper
Presented to
Mrs. Lorna Caponong
Department of English
CASS, MSU-IIT

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
ENGLISH 2 (Writing in Discipline)
Second Semester, SY 2010-2011

by
Charissa L. Abingosa
Sittie Joharah Alulong
Maria Reziel E. Cortes
Jeff de Jesus

March 15, 2012
TOPIC OUTLINE
I. Introduction
II. Mining Industry in the Philippines
A. Brief History of Mining in the Philippines
B. Scales of Mining Operations
1. Specification of Large-scale Mining
a. Definition of Large-scale Mining
b. Condition of the Large-scale Mining Industry in the Philippines 2. Specification of Small-scale Mining
c. Definition of Small-scale Mining
d. Condition of the Small-scale Mining Industry in the Philippines III. Health and Environmental Threats of Mining in the Philippines A. Environmental Threats
1. Soil Pollution and the Effect to the Bodies of Water 2. Loss of Flora, Fauna, Biodiversity, and Food Insecurity 3. Land Destruction, Subsidence, Siltation
B. Health Threats
1. Effects on the Occupational Health and Safety of Mine Workers 2. Health problems due to Water, Soil, and Air Pollution IV. Suggested Actions for the Detraction of the Dangers of Mining V. Conclusion

What is mining? Why does Mining Industry in the Philippines exist? Is mining essential for the economic development of the Philippines? What has mining brought to the Philippines? Is it desirable or undesirable? Mining is the process or business of removing minerals from the ground (Encarta Dictionaries, 2008). Consequently, the nature of mining operations creates a potential negative impact on the environment both during the operations and for years after the mine is closed. This impact has led to most of the world's nations adopting regulations to moderate the negative effects of mining operations. Philippines should therefore adhere to those countries. |

Philippines is the fifth most mineralized countries in the world (Asia Economic Institute, 2011). In fact, the former House Speaker Jose de Venecia (2009) estimated that the reserves of minerals under Philippine soil cost one trillion dollars. Apparently, mining throughout the history of the Philippines is fraught with questions – the very extractive nature of the industry is the biggest challenge, more so, given the country’s unique geographic features and sensitive and diverse ecosystems. Hence, mining industries in the Philippines is harmful to the Filipinos’ Health and destruction to the environment which causes several calamities. “We have seen the devastating effects of some of the mining operations; the spillages of mine tailing in Boac, Marinduque, in Sipalay, Hinobaan, Negros Occidental, in Itogon, Benguet, and mudflows in Sibutad, Zamboanga del Norte…” (Catholic Bishops of the Philippines, 2004). The situation of mining in the Philippines, especially the small-scale mining, has been at its worst state. Mining has been blamed on the recent ecological calamities endured by the country. This term paper is purported to significantly ascertain the negative effects of mining industry in the Philippines to the Health of the Filipinos and the Environment. And by the end of the term, this term paper will expectantly aware the public of the hazards of mining and hopefully encourage a responsive mining activity in the country.

In the year 1988, Philippines was the sixth largest producer of chromium in the world and ranked ninth in gold production and tenth in copper production (The Library of Congress Country Studies and the CIA World Factbook, 2004). It was during these years when the Philippines had abundant sources of copper, chromium, gold and nickel, as well as smaller deposits of cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, and...
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