Europe underwent some major transformation from 1100-1300. The High Middle Ages, as this period was known, economic, political, religious and cultural revivals began to shape Europe. These changes were made possible for several reasons. One of those reasons was that Europe had become more settled after numerous invasions that occurred in the Early Middle Ages. The medieval kings began to apply centralized control. Advancement in agricultural practices also contributed to the European reform, as increased food supply stimulated commercial and urban growth. Also, due to pressures from the church, internal warfare and chronic violence in Europe was declining.
One of the most exciting areas of revival was in economic conditions. The increase in food supply and agricultural production meant that trade increased. Commerce and interaction, which declined or completely halted during the dangerous disruptive years of the Central Middle Ages, reemerged. Increased trade led to several related and extremely important developments. One was the reintroduction of movement and interchange in parts of Europe, a dramatic change for people who had been isolated by limited resources and the dangerous conditions that had surrounded them. Now it was safer to travel, and there was the strong motive of trading surplus goods. Another change was the reemergence of currency throughout Europe. This was an extremely important change in the long run. Currency meant that land was no longer the only source of wealth. This eroded the monopoly of power held by feudal lords and vassals. Currency meant the beginning of a more complex economy and social system, providing more opportunities for people.
Political revival was the most threatening to feudal lords and vassals. This was the process by which kings started to successfully build states in some parts of Europe. Although this took a long period of time, in some cases centuries, the process of state building began in the 1100's and 1200's...
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