Introduction
Part 1 of this paper will look at the three most common models used for estimating the rate of return for a given company; dividend growth, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT). The board of directors for Apple Computer Corporation will receive this report, and based on the findings and analysis included, Apple will be given a recommendation as to the cost equity model they should implement to estimate their future rate of returns. This report will discuss the accuracy and ease of use of these three models. The main consideration will be determined by how realistic each model is at developing the assumed rate of return. Part 2 of this paper will discuss the cost of equity or discount rate based on hypothetical data to be calculated using the CAPM model. Considering the information presented, the cost of equity for each company will be explained and what factors influence company beta. I will explain how to apply dividend growth when estimating the cost of equity of stable companies. I will show my understanding of APT and how it relates to CAPM and dividend growth, while also applying CAPM to estimate the rate of return that a company’s investors require. In conclusion I will reiterate what I perceive to have learnt as well as give my evaluation of the module 3 case assignment. Part I

Report to Apple Board of Directors
Apple stock has been extremely stable with a beta of .74 and that number has probably risen in the last six months since Apple stock has gone into a negative trend for the first time in many years. Apple has not held any debt so there is no debt-to-equity ratio available. Apple also shows a productive profit margin over 25%. This paper will discuss the three most common models for estimating rates of return; (1) dividend growth, (2) Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and (3) Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT). This paper will conclude with a clear position of which model to use to estimate...

...equipment and other assets, managers must know the cost of obtaining funds to acquire these assets. The cost associated with different sources of funds is called the cost of capital. . If the business earns more than its cost of capital, the market value of the business will increase. Likewise, if returns on long-term investments are below the cost of capital, market values will decline. Therefore, how we manage capital is extremely important to fulfilling the basic objective of increased shareholder value.
This report is basically concentrated on the topic of “Firm & Industry cost of capital”. And then there is an empirical analysis of cost of capital on pharmaceutical industry of Bangladesh by using the concept cost of capital & Statistical model. In Bangladesh the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors is contributing in the country's economy. There will be an extensive analysis on the pharmaceutical firm’s capital structure, their dividend payment pattern, their ROE in comparison with cost of equity and determining the factor that influencing the pharmaceutical company’s cost of capital largely.
BACKGROUND OF THE REPORT
Cost of...

...The Cost of Capital for Goff Computer, Inc.
Rahul Parikh
BUS650: Managerial Finance (MAH1209A)
Dr Charles Smith
March 18, 2012.
The Cost of Capital for Goff Computer, Inc.:
1. Most publicly traded corporations are required to submit 10Q (quarterly) and 10K (annual) reports to the SEC detailing their financial operations over the previous quarter or year, respectively. These corporate fillings are available on the SEC Web site at www.sec.gov. Go to the SEC Web site, follow the “Search for Company Filings” link, the “Companies & Other Filers” link, enter “Dell Computer,” and search for SEC filings made by Dell. Find the most recent 10Q and 10K and download the forms. Look on the balance sheet to find the book value of debt and the book value of equity. If you look further down the report, you should find a section titled either “Long-term Debt” or “Long –term Debt and Interest Rate Risk Management” that will list a breakdown of Dell’s long-term debt.
Answer:
The book value of a company's equity is the same as stockholder's equity, which can be computed by subtracting the total value of liabilities from total assets.
(Total Assets) = (Total) Liabilities + Stockholder's Equity (book value of equity).
Stockholder's Equity (book value of equity) = Total Assets –Total Liabilities.
The book value of...

...WEIGHTED AVERAGE COST OF CAPITAL FOR DELL COMPUTER
1) From the SEC website, the balance sheet of Dell Computer reveals a
Book value of debt = $3,394,000,000 and
Book value of equity = $4,625,000,000
The same balance shows the breakdown of the long-term debt (book values) in table 1.
Table 1
Coupon Rate
(%) Maturity Book Value
(Face Value in million $)
3.38 06/15/2012 400
4.70 04/15/2013 599
5.63 04/15/2014 500
5.65 04/15/2018 499
5.88 06/15/2019 600
7.10 04/15/2028 396
6.50 04/15/2038 400
2) From finance.yahoo.com,
• The most recent (Oct 30 2009) stock price (Po) = $14.45
• Market value of equity or market capitalisation = $28,260,000000
• Shares outstanding (28,260,000,000/14.45) = 1,955,709,343
• No dividend is paid recently. In this case, the dividend discount model cannot be used
• The three-month treasury bill yield = 0.03%
Cost of Equity
Risk free rate (Rf)= 0.03%
Systematic risk of Equity (Beta, BE) = 1.36
Assuming market risk premium = 8.6%
Using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM),
Cost of equity (RE) = Rf + BE(RM - Rf)
Where,
RM is expected return on the overall market
(RM - Rf) is the market risk premium
Cost of equity (RE) = 0.0003 + 0.086 x 1.36
= 0.1173 = 11.73%
Therefore, the...

...Cost of Capital
Definition: cost of capital is the rate of return that a company must earn on its project investments to maintain its market value and attract funds. The cost of capital to a company is the minimum rate of return that is must earn on its investments in order to satisfy the various categories of investors, who have made investments in the form of shares , debentures and loans. Thecost of capital in operational terms refers to the discount rate that would be used in determining the present value of the estimated future cash proceeds and eventually deciding whether the project is worth undertaking or not. It is defined as "the minimum rate of return" that a firm must earn on its investment for the market value of the firm to remain unchanged.
Basic Aspects of concept of Cost of capital :
here are three basic aspects of concept of cost. They are:
* It is not a cost as such.
* It is the minimum rate of return.
* It comprises the following 3 components:
* Return at Zero risk level – This refers to the expected rate of return when a project involves no risk whether business or financial.
* Premium for business risk – The term business risk refers to the variability in operating profit due to change in sales. The concept is...

...Cost of Capital
Firms need to make capital investment i.e., purchasing fixed assets such as factories, machineries, equipment, etc. After deciding what capital investments to make, they need to decide on the financing – sources of capital. The sources: Long-Term Debt, Common Stock, Preferred Stock and Retained Earnings. Then they need to find the cost of obtaining each source of financing today (not historical).
Cost of Capital - The rate of return that a firm must earn on its investment projects to maintain its market value and attract funds. It depends on the risk of that investment (use of funds, not source of funds)
1. Cost of Debt (rd) – we use Bonds to represent the cost of long-term debt. Its required rate of return is the yield-to-maturity (YTM) of the bond. After we calculate the rd, we need to find the after-tax cost of debt : rd (after-tax) = rd(1 –T). In finding the YTM, we need to have the bond’s current price. If there is a flotation costs involved in issuing the bond, we need to deduct these costs first to find the net price of the bonds.
(Example: A company wants to sell $10 million worth of 20-year, 9% coupon bonds with a par value of $1,000 each. The firm must sell the bonds for $980 to reflect the market price of other similar bonds. The flotation...

...What’s your real cost of capital?
By James J. McNulty, Tony D. Yeh, William s. Schulze, and Michael H. Lubatkin
Harvard Business Review, October 2002
Issue of the article: valuing investment projects
Number of pages: 12
Daniel Miravet Campos
Part 1. Executive summary
This article is fundamentally based on the exposition of a new method to calculate the cost of capital for a company (MCPM), to meet the inefficiencies of the current one (CAPM).
In valuing any investment project or corporate acquisition, executives of a company must compare the cost that operation would require with its expected future cash flows. To do so, they must discount those future cash flows with a specific rate in order to make the comparison meaningful. This is what we know as cost of equitycapital, and determining that discount rate is a very important task for the managers of a company, since applying a too high or too low rate will have significant effects on estimating the project’s or company’s value.
The traditional approach to evaluating capital investments is to apply the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which has remained practically unchanged for 40 years.
This standard formula states that a company’s cost of capital is equal to the risk-free rate of return plus a premium...

...EquityCosts: Some Conventions on Using the CAPM1
One of the starkest contrasts in finance is found in comparing the elegance of capital-asset pricing theory with the coarseness of its application. Although the capital-asset pricing model (CAPM) is well understood, the theory says nothing about which risk-free rates, market premia, and betas to use in the model. Possibilities abound, and any sampling of academicians and practitioners will summon up many combinations and permutations of methods. Rather than use all approaches, these notes cling to two:
Short-term risk-free rate and arithmetic market premium: The argument for this approach is that short-term rates are the best proxy for riskless rates: as obligations of the U.S. (or other) government, short-term rates are the closest to being default-risk free. As short-term rates, they suffer little risk of illiquidity or capital loss because of sudden rises in market yields. For the purposes of these notes, “short term” is defined as 90 to 360 days. The corresponding market premium used is the arithmetic average premium estimated over the long term (e.g., 1926 to the date of the case). For the period through 1992, this average was estimated to be 8.6 percent.2 If there is a bias in academia and in practice, it is toward the arithmetic premium, because, when compounded over many periods, an arithmetic mean return is the one that...

...is it important to estimate a firm’s cost of capital? Do you agree with Joanna Cohen’s WACC calculation? Why or why not?
WACC- The weighted average cost of capital is the rate (percentage) that a company has to pay to its creditors and shareholders to finance assets. It is the “cost” of their worth. Companies raise money from many different types of securities and loans and the various required returns are what make up the cost of capital. WACC is used to decide if an investment is worth it or not based on the weights of debt and equity.
Why WACC is important
* To decide what projects to accept or reject. Rate of return should be equal to or greater than company cost of capital
* Knowing cost of debt and cost of equity helps a company determine how they should be structured and whether more financing should come from equity or debt
I do not agree with Cohen’s calculation for WACC. While some of her calculations were good, I think that there were some that she could have used different numbers and rates to come up with more accurate numbers.
WACC=(E/(D+E)) Ke + (D/(D+E)) Kd (1-t)
2. If you do not agree with Cohen’s analysis, calculate your own WACC for Nike and be prepared to justify your assumptions
Cost of debt-based on yield to maturity
PMT=...

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