“Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), is when the vessels supplying blood and oxygen to your heart become narrow or constricted⑺”
The main causes are:
Smoking cigarettes - Cigarette smoking is a major cause of strokes. High blood pressure - Can put strain on your heart and can lead to CHD. High cholesterol levels - Cholesterol is essential for healthy cells, but if there is too much in the blood it can lead to CHD. Unhealthy diet - A bad diet can lead to diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension and uncontrolled weight. Each of these factors independently contribute to a high risk of heart disease. Physical inactivity - Regular physical activity decreases the risk of coronary artery disease because it makes the coronary arteries wider and more flexible. Alcohol consumption - Raises blood pressure; puts more pressure on arteries. Obesity - Reduces HDL cholesterol which enable lipids to be transported within the water-based bloodstream.
The cost of coronary heart disease to society cannot be viewed in terms of just money, but also the loss of 166,000 lives every year, this figure is the number of people who died of coronary heart disease in 1961 in the UK. The figure in 1997 however had fallen to 140,500. In 2000, this figure had fallen still to 125,000, and in 2010 more than 65,000 people died from coronary heart disease; more than for any other disease⑹.
The total direct healthcare costs of coronary heart disease in 1999 came to £1.73 billion. The major costs were those used for hospital inpatient care, which accounted for £917 million (or 53% of the total) and drug treatment, which accounted for £558 million (or 32% of the total). Rehabilitation and community care, prevention and primary care, accident and emergency (A&E) and outpatient care accounted for 7.4%, 3.6%, and 2.9%, respectively, of total direct costs. People aged 65 years and above and men utilised 63% and...