To fully understand the Congress of Vienna, you must understand the participants and their motives at the gathering. One powerful representative was Charles de Talleyrand, the French diplomat who fought his way into having a say at the Congress of Vienna. However, he did not have nearly as much power as The Big Four. The Big Four were the most powerful diplomats at the Congress. They were: Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria, Alexander I, the Russian emperor, Lord Casltereagh, the British diplomat, and Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the main representative of Prussia. The biggest motivation of the Big Four was the achievement of worldwide peace, but on the terms set by themselves and no one else. Each member of the Big Four had their own reasons for the actions they took during this time.
Metternich, an extremely conservative man, resented liberalism, nationalism, and revolution. At the Congress of Vienna, Metternich therefore supported a conservative government. He also wanted a balance of power. This, in part, was the driving force that allowed him to stop Russian plans for the annexation of all of Poland and the Prussian attempt to gain Saxony. He wanted to stop Russia from gaining more power because it could throw off his plans for equal control of the territory in Europe.
Alexander I attempted to annex all of Russia, but he was stopped by Metternich. His motivation was his desire to gain more land for his country. In doing so, he, as a ruler, would have become the most powerful ruler of Europe. By setting up the Holy Alliance with Prussia and Austria, Alexander was trying to attain the understanding of High Christian ideals in all nations of Europe.
Prince Karl August von Hardenberg was in the Holy Alliance and tried to gain Saxony for the country he represented, Prussia. In diplomacy, he could not compete with Metternich, whose power soon overshadowed Hardenberg's in the Councils of Europe, Germany, and - in the end - Prussia itself. At the Congress, despite the powerful support of Alexander I of Russia, he failed to secure the annexation for all of Saxony to Prussia.
Lord Casltereagh was the diplomat from Great Britain to the Congress of Vienna. He favored an independent Poland, but was obligated to agree to its repartitioning. This may have been the reason that he joined an alliance with Metternich and Talleyrand - to stop the annexation of Poland. His goal throughout the entire Congress was to save Europe from military domination. When he discovered that Russia and Prussia were trying to gain power for themselves and not power to protect the...