As far back in time as can be remembered, there has always been some form of religion governing the thoughts of mankind. Different cultures found different deities to explain what they could not, the natural phenomenas all around them. These "gods of the gaps" were essential to allow the ancient people to give explanations for what they did not know, saying simply that "God did it". However, as time went on and science emerged with its theories and evidence, people realized that there were answers other than God that existed to their questions.
The Church, having been used to being the sole authority on these matters, did not react well to the materialistic approach that scientists took towards things, and many of science's earlier discoveries, such as the shape of the universe and the fact that the sun was at the centre of the solar system, went directly against Church teaching. The drastic measures that the Catholic Church took to eradicate this new way of thinking enforced the rift between religion and science.
This highlights the main issue that exists between science and religion that exists to this day, the two factions complete inability to reconcile their two points of view, and their seeming need to rubbish the beliefs of the other. Science is mainly based in practical. tangible evidence. On the other hand, the existence of a God is neither something that has been proved nor disproved, so religion is based simply in faith and belief.
The conflict rises from many people in both sides refusal to see the merits of the opposing view. Most scientists will completely ignore any possibility of supernatural means for the beginning of the universe and any natural phenomena in it. Disregarding this possibility restricts science's capacity to shed light on knowledge to only what is of the material world.
Many religious people will feel resentful over science overlooking their views on many...