The Concept of Energy Intake and Expenditure in Sports Performance.

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Task 2 – Describe (P3) or explain (M1) the concept of energy intake and expenditure in sports performance. The concept of energy intake and expenditure refers to the amount of calories per day that an individual consumes, and is the chemical energy in foods which can be metabolized to produce energy available to the body. As stated before energy is obtained from the foods we eat and is used to support an individual’s Basal Metabolic Rate, energy is measured in calories or joules as both units are very small they are multiplied by 1,000 and referred to as kilocalories. Different foods provide us with different amounts of energy, and the potential fuel sources available to exercising muscles are fats – 1 gram fat =9.0kcal = 23kJ, carbohydrates = 1 gram carbohydrate =4.9kcal=17kJ, and protein –1 gram protein = 4.0kcal =17kJ. However their relative values as food for activity differs such as protein may be used during prolonged periods of exercise and towards the later stages of endurance events whereas carbohydrates is used for long distance runners. The amount of food we eat which is our energy intake should match energy expenditure. However is there is inadequate energy intake relative to energy expenditure, the body will use fat and lean tissue mass for fuel. The total daily energy expenditure is influenced by heredity, age, sex, fat-free mass, body size, environmental factors, pregnancy and the intensity, frequency and duration of exercise. It is generally made up of three components; 1) resting metabolic rate which is the minimum energy requirements to sustain the body functions, 2) the thermic effect of food intake which is the energy expended on digestion and absorption and storage of food and finally 3) the energy cost of exercise which includes normal everyday activities an individual does as well as the energy cost of soccer training etc. Moving on, the amount of calories burned during exercise is known as energy expenditure. The amount of calories burned will vary depending on an individual’s body bass, exercise intensity, exercise duration and frequency as stated before. Energy expenditure for various sports differ for e.g. a 155-lb person undertaking water aerobics burn approximately 149 calories per half hour, whereas in swimming a 155-lb individual can burn between 233 and 409 calories per half hour. However walking and jogging can burn approximately 149 miles per half hour. Whereas team sports from basketball, tennis, and many more all though expenditure is difficult to calculate as it will depend on level of play and position, but sports played at 50-70% percent maximum heart rate are considered moderate level activity whereas intensities resulting in heart rate 0f 70-85% are vigorous activities and an competitive football game may burn 335 calories per half hour. A man around the age of 25 with a sedentary lifestyle is recommended to consume around 2500 kcal whereas a man of a similar age who is very active should consume about 3333kcal. Older people are recommended to have a lower intake than younger people and males generally have a higher intake than females. Whereas elite sports performances such as football players have a likely energy intake to be 2033-4000 kcal per day depending on factors such as intensive training where intake may need to be increased or decreased. Elite performers have diets which are too high in fat and too low in CHO intake, and so should be encouraged to consume more unsaturated fat such as margarine instead of saturated fat (butter) as well as complex carbohydrates such as pasta and rice. A football player with the daily intake 3809kcal need the respective amounts of CHO, fat and protein and for a standard healthy diet the general recommendations of 55-60% CHO, 25-30% fat and 10-15% protein is advised. Calculations show that the football player should be consuming 550-600g of CHO, 108-130g of fat and 94-141g of protein. CHO INTAKE = 55-60% of 16000kJ (energy intake) /...
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