A: WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION
First definition: “Administration can be defined as the activities of groups cooperating to accomplish common goals”.
There are particular key elements of administration.
Cooperative: the word cooperative is the first key element in this definition. Human activity is cooperative if it has the effects that would be absent if the cooperation did not take place.
* Group Activity: Administration includes activities of more than one individual. * The term ‘cooperative’ is defined in terms of the results of the human activity.
When two men together roll a stone which neither of them could roll alone they are cooperating.
* Thus the essence of administration is the utilization of cooperative action for the accomplishment of common goals. * Common goal: the second key element of the above definition is the goal or purpose.
* It is the common goal which encourages members to come together. Cooperation among members is possible when they share a common goal.
The idea of goal is central to the concept of administration in the sense that if there was not a goal, the members of the group would not come together and cooperate with each other. * Without the formulation of an objective or goal, no one within the group would know what to do and they would not get involved in any activity. * When someone determines the objective and the group is formed, than the group members will start to think about what they can do for the accomplishment of that objective. *
Second Definition: In another definition, administration is defined as “an activity or process mainly concerned with the means for carrying out prescribed ends”.
* Here, again in this definition the accomplishment of a specific goal is an important element of the administration. * This definition indicates that administration is mainly concerned with the means that are necessary for the...