PSY 104: Child and Adolescent Development
Instructor: Sonja Bethune
Monday, May 21, 2012
Throughout time the development of psychology has had many different theorists but I would like to explore these three particular theories. * Erik Erikson’s – Stages of Psychosocial Development * Lev Vygotsky’s – Sociocultural Theory
* Jean Piagets’s – Stage of Cognitive Development
The three theories I have chosen to discuss are all extremely relevant ideas; although I prefer Erik Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development. Erik Erikson’s theory covers a person’s entire lifespan showing the many different stages throughout one’s life. A person is always growing, learning, and developing on a continuous basis. It is believed that one must learn each stage in order to advance successfully throughout life and if there is a skip in a stage then there is confusion within their role. “Erik Erikson made significant contributions and influenced the studies and research of countless other people” (Daruphousse, 2010). After Erik Erikson’s psycho analysis with Anna Freud he was intrigued and studied psychosocial development himself. He maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order. Erikson’s theory that life is a span of challenges and lessons throughout life is his model of psychosocial development. The predetermined order is focusing on how children interact and socialize with other and how it affects the child’s sense of self. There are a total of eight stages with each having two possible outcomes. Erikson’s theory is successful when each stage is completed resulting in a person being able to successfully interact with others and have a well-rounded personality themselves. If a stage is not completed it can result in the inability to complete further stages resulting in an unhealthy personality. The Eight Stages are:
* Trust Versus Mistrust (Birth through 1 ½ years) – Baby, birth to walking. At this age a child is learning to trust others based on the ability to depend on the consistency of the adults within their lives. As trust is built the child learns confidence and becomes secure within their environment. If this stage is unsuccessful the child may have a sense of fear that could result in anxieties or heightened insecurities. * Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (1-3 years) – Toddler, toilet training. A child is learning independence during this stage. They learn to choose which toy to play with, what they like to wear and eat, etc. During this stage if the child is encouraged their independence will increase and they become more confident and secure within their environment when a child is not encouraged they may feel inadequate and become more dependent upon others causing a lack of self-esteem resulting in shame or doubt in their own abilities. * Initiative Versus Guilt (3-6 years) – Preschool, nursery. During this stage children become assertive more frequently. They show the ability to plan and initiate activities, play pretend and play with others. When the opportunity is given the child will develop initiative, self-esteem, and confidence in the abilities and decisions. When this stage is not fostered they feel a sense of guilt, resulting in the feelings of being a nuisance which could cause them to be more of a follower rather than a leader. * Industry Versus Inferiority (5-12 years) – Early School. At this stage in development a child learns a sense of pride for their accomplishments. A child will initiate projects, complete and have good feelings about what they have done. During this stage teachers have a more active role in the child’s development. When the child is encouraged they feel the ability to obtain their goals. If this is not encouraged the child will doubt their ability and may not meet their potential. * Identity Versus Role Confusion (11-18 years) – Puberty,...