Part One: The Encounters
Chapter One: Natives:
Old world explorers encountered in the new world complex and diverse peoples—who, where, etc? Old world explorers encountered Native Americans in North America.
Pre-Columbian America is “fraught with controversy.” What conflicts were they? Native Americans had conflict with the Europeans over social and environmental problems; this led to violence and war. Also, Europeans and Native Americans were both violent and Europeans enslaved and killed Natives to conquer land and people.
Without making Europeans out to be vile, cruel and violent, we should recognize that they had superior power but they gave new additions to Native Americans. Europeans brought new weapons and tools that the Natives found helpful and useful. The Europeans also brought horticulture to the land.
Some natives had a culture that demanded less of the environment than that of other natives—such as: The natives north of central Mexico lived in smaller more dispersed bands that had less of a burden on the nature unlike the Anasazi, Hohokam, and northern Mississippians that all put excessive pressure on their local environments.
What are Taylor’s three ideas which he argues about migration? The people had to remain on foot to follow the herds of animals, The period between fifteen thousand and twelve thousand years ago was the ideal time of crossing into North America. Dental, genetic, and linguistic analysis reveals that most Native Americans descend from ancestors that came here fifteen thousand years ago.
Chapter Two: Colonizers:
Taylor makes a big issue over environmentalism—why?
During that time period the state of the environment affected how you lived in every way. The people depended on the environment greatly to give them daily needs and its effects were high. What caused the expansion of Europe—and why?
The improvement of ship making techniques and navigational techniques caused the expansion of Europe. When the Iberian Peninsula was discovered the Europeans looked west for expansion searching to find a route to the east to find completely different land.
What were the two major religions of the age of expansion? How do they come to impact the new world? Islam and Christianity were the two major religions of the age of expansion. The Christians began converting the natives as they sought out help from the Europeans. They were accepting of new beliefs and easy to accept the Christian ideals.
Why is the Atlantic Ocean such a central vital environmental concern for the colonizers? The Europeans believed it to be much larger than it actually is. Also, it was their pathway to the New World.
Once across the Ocean, what were contributions of the colonizers to the New York area? The colonizers contributions to the New York area were disease, animal depopulation, and they had a negative impact on the environment.
What does Taylor say about slavery in the new world?
Slavery was specific to natives but to the death of most natives, Europeans imported Africans as they were more immune to the diseases.
How significant was Renaissance science and technology for the colonizers? The colonizers benefited from Renaissance science and technologies as they brought new techniques for farming and improving daily life.
Chapter Three: New Spain. [Using bullets or short paragraphs, summarize Taylor’s assessment of]
Conquests: Spanish conquests were brutal and gruesome. All for acquiring riches conquistadors murdered hundreds of thousands of people. They murdered natives with the justification of natives having religious idols and human sacrifices.
Conquistadores: The Spanish explorers were independent men that longed for power over others. Greed was necessary to live the life of a conquistador. With no morals and complete disregard for their own beliefs they got what they came for.
Consolidation: Spain was never able to consolidate an...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document