The Classroom Discussion Model of Teaching (*Arends, 2001)

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The Classroom Discussion Model of Teaching
(*Arends, 2001)

The classroom discussion model of teaching involves giving students the opportunity to participate in structured small and large group conversations. The teacher, however, must specify the purpose for the discussion, establish the rules for conversational engagement, facilitate, and monitor the progress of the conversation. The five steps of the Classroom Discussion Model of Teaching appear in the chart below.

The Five Steps of the Classroom Discussion Model of Teaching

Steps| Description| Teacher and/or Student Behavior|
1| Get students ready to learn, and clarify the objective/s for the discussion|  Teacher gets students ready to learn. Teacher identifies the objective/s for the discussion.| 2| Focus the discussion|  Teacher explains the ground rules for the discussion.| 3| Facilitate the discussion|  Teacher facilitates one of the whole class or small group discussion procedures described below.| 4| Terminate the discussion|  Teacher brings closure to the discussion.| 5| Reflect on the discussion|  Teacher invites students to share their thoughts, and conclusions about the discussion content and discussion procedure.| What Are Models of Instruction?| |

| An instructional model is a step-by-step procedure that leads to specific learning outcomes. The models of teaching approach emphasizes the need for variety in the classroom, which can only be accomplished by developing the teacher’s repertoire of instructional approaches to meet a range of objectives. The teacher who utilizes a variety of instructional approaches is more likely to reach all students in the classroom; moreover, students are encouraged to learn in a variety of ways.The models presented in the fourth edition of Instruction: A Models Approach by Gunter, Estes, and Schwab are as follows:Direct Instruction: A highly structured model used most effectively in teaching basic skills such as reading and mathematics when the tasks to be learned can be broken down into small, discrete segments.Concept Attainment: Through a series of positive and negative examples, students define the concept and determine its essential attributes.Concept Development: Students learn to group data based on perceived similarities and then to form categories and labels for the data.Inquiry: Learners take a puzzling situation and follow a scientific process for problem solving that leads to the generation of an hypothesis.Synectics: The three versions of the synectics model presented here use group interaction to stimulate creative thought through metaphorical analogies.Cause and Effect: Through inference, students hypothesize about causes and effects, consider prior causes and subsequent effects, and generalize about human behavior in similar situations.Classroom Discussion: This model guides the planning and selection of questions to be used in classroom discussions. Both students and teachers learn to identify different levels and types of questions.Vocabulary Acquisition: This model presents a technique for teaching vocabulary through the history of language and word derivation rather than through the memorization of lists.Resolution of Conflict: A model which provides precise questioning techniques for the exploration and study of feelings as students explore the thoughts and behavior of individuals involved in conflict situations.Values Development: This model stresses the use of the regular school curriculum to identify the important themes and questions that are embedded in all subject areas.Cooperative Learning: Five models that encourage students to work with and help other students in the classroom. Included are Jigsaw, Role Playing, Team Interview, Graffiti, and Think, Pair, Share.Memory: Four models that can help both teachers and students improve...
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