A number of reports by academicians and practitioners all over the world have called significant change in the accounting methods and research and their relevance in the 21st century. Many believe that the accounting model is outdated with little relevance to the changes taken place in the wider world. Both the academicians and practitioners agree that if accounting is to serve a useful role in the changing environment, accounting education and accounting research should become more broader, dynamic and not constraint by a single approach. Despite these facts, the academicians and practitioners both stated that the accounting methods taught and practiced have changed significantly.
The history of accounts does not begin from the colonial era of the British Empire neither does it begin in the fourteenth century Italy, accounts came from the Mesopotamian region in the 3500 B.C. Five thousand years before the appearance of double-entry, the Assyrian, Chaldaean-Babylonian and Summerain civilizations were flourishing in the Mesopotamian Valley, producing some of the oldest known records of commerce (ACAUS, 1999). As business prospered and industries developed, cities of Babylon and Ninerah became the center for commerce and the language of business and politics. Mesopotamia had more than one bank with a standard measurement in gold and silver. And in some transactions allowing some credit. The accountants in the Mesopotamian times had similar but more extensive duties than the accountants of today. Apart from writing up transactions, he ensured that the agreement complied with detailed code requirements for commercial transactions (ACAUS, 1999). The scribes would record the transaction on specially prepared clay not because clay was available in surplus but because paper also known as papyrus was very expensive and scarce.
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