The Changes That Affected Marketing Executives Charged with Implementing Strategies Internationally

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However, the world changed yet again! Just as organizations began to feel that they understood and had taken control of the Internet, along came a wave of new technologies that changed cultural norms and innovative praxes that effectively rendered many managers confused and helpless. This is particularly true for marketing executives charged with formulating and implementing marketing strategies internationally–—in a world where consumer time zones have become invisible and communication immediate. In this article, we provide a brief overview of Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers, and explore the challenges and opportunities that these phenomena present to managers generally and to international marketers and their strategies in par-ticular. We also show that these phenomena have specific and unique implications for international marketing strategy, and we provide five axioms to aid international marketers in exploiting the upside of these phenomena while limiting the considerable downside that can occur far too easily 我们提供了一个简要介绍了Web 2.0,社交媒体,以及创造性的消费者,探索,这些现象目前一般的经理和国际市场营销人员和他们的战略,特别是在参数的机遇和挑战。我们还表明,这些现象都有具体和独特的国际营销战略的影响,我们提供了五个公理,以帮助国际营销中利用这些现象的上攻,同时限制了相当大的缺点是太容易出现 The terms Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers are often used imprecisely and interchangeably–—largely because they are closely related and are, indeed, interdependent. However, they are conceptually discrete, and marketing man-agers need to understand the nuances of each to better serve the worldwide marketplace. One way of thinking about the differences between Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers is illustrated Web 2.0,社交媒体和创意的消费者经常使用精确的交替 - 这主要是因为他们是密切相关的,确实是相互依存的。然而,他们在概念上是离散的,营销管理者们需要了解每一个细微之处,更好地服务于全球市场。的一种方式的思考Web 2.0,社交媒体和创意的消费者之间的差异说明 in Figure 1, which uses two delineating dimensions of focus. As seen in Figure 1, Web 2.0 can be thought of as the technical infrastructure that enables the social phenomenon of collective media and facilitates consumer-generated content. The latter are distinguished by the difference in focus: social media can be thought of as focusing on content, and consumer generation on the creators of that content. Simply, Web 2.0 enables the creation and distribution of the content that is social media. 在图1中,它使用两个划定的尺寸,在图1中看到的focus. As,Web 2.0可以想到的技术基础设施,使集体媒体的社会现象并促进消费者生成的内容。后者是区分gushed的差异的焦点:社交媒体可以被看作是专注于内容和消费者产生的内容的创造者。简单地说,Web 2.0使创造和分配的内容,是社会化媒体。 2.1. Web 2.0

Web 2.0 technologies have caused three effects: (1)a shift in locus of activity from the desktop to the Web, (2) a shift in locus of value production from the firm to the consumer, and (3) a shift in the locus of power away from the firm to the consumer. Indeed,Web 2.0 can be thought of as a series of technologi-cal innovations in terms of both hardware and soft-ware that facilitate inexpensive content creation, interaction, and interoperability, and that put the lay user–—rather than the firm–—center stage in terms of design, collaboration, and community on the World Wide Web. Contrasting Web 2.0 with Web 1.0 can be thought of in terms of technology that has enabled a shift in focus from companies to consum-ers, individuals to communities, nodes to networks, publishing to participation, and intrusion to invitation. While Web 2.0 is technological, its effects are sociological and little short of revolutionary in their implications for business.The origin of the term Web 2.0 is credited to the O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 Conference of 2004, during which O’Reilly described the Web 2.0 phenomenon as business embracing the Web as a platform...
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