of the brain and spinal cord. Neurones are found throughout the body with the majority found in the central nervous system. Neurones are specialized to process information in the body. Neurones convey this information to one another through the stimulation of a detector neurone. This causing a brief change in the electrochemical gradient resulting in the neurone moving away from its resting potential. This is known as an action potential. Once initiated the action potential travels the length of the axon reaching the pre-synaptic terminal where the synaptic cleft separates the following neurone. At the terminal neurotransmitters are stored ready to be released, across the synaptic gap, when the action potential arrives. The receptors on the post-synaptic neurone become occupied with the neurotransmitters resulting in a change in electrical charge. The neurotransmitters can either cause inhibition of the post-synaptic neurone, by suppressing the activity of the neurone and returning to the resting potential or excitation where by the activity of the neurone is increased. Each neurotransmitter resembles a lock and key whereby the neurotransmitters are specific to the receptor it fits.
All human behaviour has a biological basis where a chemical imbalance can cause abnormalities. An example of this is how neural activity effects mood, behaviour and cognition. Disease can cause certain areas of the brain to cease to function correctly possibly leading to abnormalities in neurotransmitter production. In the case of Parkinson’s disease the ability to perform motor control behaviours is reduced. This reduction has been linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurones which in turn decreases the release of the chemical neurotransmitter dopamine. The reduction of dopamine at a synapse prevents the firing of an action potential in the post-synaptic neurone reducing the ability to perform behaviours associated with motor control. Chemical imbalances that prevent a neuron...
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