HYPERLINK "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rF7jKjZV7OA" “Child Development Theorists: Freud to Erikson to Spock and Beyond” Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Id- (Present at birth) Child seeks pleasure, avoids pain, and is self-centered. Ego- (Develops at 2-3) Child understands how to satisfy the Id. [Cause + Effect] Super-Ego- (Develops at 6-7) Child understands society/family rules. “The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water.” Maria Montessori (1870-1952)
Teaching hands-on activities with love and encouragement from peers. The 1st woman in Italy to become a doctor; specializing in Pediatrics and children that had been labeled ineducable. “Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed.” Arnold Gesell (1880-1961)
Nature over Nurture
Believed that development happens when children are ready.
“Scientific knowledge is in perpetual evolutions it finds itself changing from one day to the next.”
Lev Vygotsky (1896- 1934)
Nurture over Nature: 5-Step Process of Sociocultural Development Adults provide tools
Adults aid and assess
Adults guide and aid transition
“Learning is more than the acquisition of the ability to think; it is thinking about a variety of things.”
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Cognitive Development Theory
- Understanding through senses and muscles.
- Understanding through language and images.
Concrete Operational (7-12)
- Understands through others points of view.
Formal Operations (13-Adult)
- Understanding through abstract thinking.
“If you want to be creative, stay in part a child, with the creativity and invention that characterizes children before they are deformed by adult society.”
Rudolf Dreikers (1897-1972)
Feeling Isolated = Misbehavior in 4 Ways
“It is autocratic to force, but democratic to induce compliance.” ...
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