The brain is the most important organ, and any animal, even mosquitoes have them. However, have you thought any special ability of the brain, or have you imagined about your personality, emotion or memory in the situation which you lost a part of brain? In fact, there are lots of great abilities such as memory in the brain without our notice. Although, all the brain’s tasks are not clear completely, a lot of scientists have researched it and found its several miraculous functions (Newhouse 2007). The brain consists of many parts; particularly, this paper describes four parts of the brain which relate to memories or emotions. People who lost those four parts or a part of those would get effects on their memories or emotions. In fact, we can see the after effects from the actual person called Henry M., whose four parts were removed. We can also realize his unexpected ability after losing his four brain parts.
The hippocampus, the entorhinal and perihinal cortices and the amygdale have very important roles in our memories and emotions. First of all, the hippocampus, which is the most important area for memory in the brain, transmits information from short-term memory to long-term memory (Foer 2007). Information collected by the senses is received in various parts of the cortexes within milliseconds, and this process is called immediate memory. Then, the frontal cortex takes the information and keeps it to be able to use immediately. The frontal cortex also coordinates using the information by other parts of the cortex, and this process is called working memory. Short-term memory means these immediate and working memories. After that, relative facts start to be encoded with the help of the hippocampus and other areas of the medial temporal lobes within a few seconds, and this work means changing to long-term memory from short-term memory. The neural connections in the cortex, which is stimulated by information, are trained not to forget and connected with emotional circumstances. The hippocampus ties up with memories, but it cannot store memories. Therefore, long-term memory is transported to the region of the cortex (Mapping memory 2007, p.43). Moreover, the hippocampus is also important for information as spatial memory, which relates to geographic information (Brain structures and their functions n.d.).
Secondly, the entorhinal cortex, located at the caudal end of the temporal lobe, is also important for memory in the brain. It helps the main input to the hippocampus, and is accountable for the process of the input signals. The entorhinal cortex also assists stimuli which relate to the eye and the ear, and it contains the ability of spatial memory. The relationship between the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus is essential for memories’ strength and pruning during sleep <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entorhinal_cortex>.
Thirdly, the perirhinal cortex, located in the medial temporal lobe receives processed sensory information from all sensory regions. It is an essential region for memory and visual cognition, and has connections with the hippocampus as well as the entorhinal cortex. It also enables the recognition and confirmation of environmental stimulations <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perirhinal_cortex>.
Finally, the amygdale, called a ‘feel processer’ (LeDoux 2009), is the hub of neural connections and very important for emotional problems which relate particularly to fear, so it allows action in threatening circumstances quickly (Mapping memory 2007 p.43). Damaging the amygdala means losing fear conditioning and emotional responses because the amygdala usually releases stress-hormones. It also relates to positive conditioning (LeDoux 2009).
Thus, these parts are important for memorizing emotionally, visually and auditorily. In particular, the hippocampus is necessary for memories to transfer from short-term memory to long-term memory;...