The Black Death was a bacterium which was carried by flea infested rats. This disaster spread across Europe quite rapidly.
Much accusation for the cause of the plague was pressed onto the Jewish community.
The most common plague was the bubonic plague, although the pneumatic plague also existed.
This disaster caused economic, social, political and cultural havoc.
Approximately 50% of the infested population died, which, was estimated between 19 to 38 million.
During this occurrence 25 to 50 percent of the population throughout Europe decreased.
The plague began around 1347 and did not end until around 1369.
What major problems did European states face in the fourteenth century?
There was economic mayhem during 1347-1351 caused by drop in population, which was caused by the immense amount of deaths caused by the Black Death.
Peasants salaries were increasing where as aristocrats' loss around 20 percent of their income. This caused social instability and lead riots.
Peasants revolted against the nobles which affected commercial and industrial activities.
The political structure changed causing instability. This was due to internal conflicts on who should lead to bureaucracy.
How and why did the authority and prestige of the papacy decline in the fourteenth century? The papacy began to lose control when King Philip IV chose to tax the French clergy, without the pope's consent.
The Struggle was based on authority between the papacy and the royal sovereignty of the monarch.
The church also lost a great deal of their prestige when the cardinals had elected two popes, Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII.
Soon after a third Pope joined the crowd in an effort to resolve the problem of the two first Popes, although this only caused more chaos.
What were the major developments in art and literature in the fourteenth century?
The most prominent...